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Wednesday, May 24, 2017

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This page will help you locate historical markers in your area.

  1. Dixie Highway, The

    The Dixie Highway was the first national road linking industrial northern states to agricultural southern states. Governors of several states met in 1915 to consider an improved road to Miami. States lobbied for inclusion, resulting in eastern and western divisions running through ten states. In Illinois, the road started in Chicago, traveled through Blue Island, Homewood, and Chicago Heights, then followed what is today Route 1 down to Danville. There it turned east to Indiana. By 1923, the Dixie Highway consisted of a network of 6,000 improved roadway miles.

    The Dixie Highway Association took over the work begun by the governors. Many counties funded and built the highway in their area; poorer counties required federal aid and private subscriptions. Citizens took paintbrushes in hand to paint "DH" in red and white on poles, marking the way for travelers. Gas stations and mechanics were sparse. Motorists carried extra gas and tools. Tourists packed tents or rented rooms. Soon tourists camps, cabins, roadside diners, and service garages sprouted. The route played a significant role in both world wars as a path for carrying supplies.

    The Dixie Highway follows one of the oldest and most historical trails. Native Americans and trapper-traders used a path worn by animals along the eastern Illinois border. In the 1820s, Gurdon Saltenstall Hubbard established trading posts along the route, which is identified as Hubbard's Trace and Vincennes Trail on old maps. In 1835, the Illinois General Assembly ordered a state road to be established and mile markers to be placed theron.
  2. Eastland Disaster, The

    While still partially tied to its dock at the river's edge, the excursion steamer Eastland rolled over on the morning of July 24, 1915. The result was one of the worst maritime disasters in American history. More than eight hundred people lost their lives within a few feet of the shore. The Eastland was filled to overflowing with picnic bound Western Electric Company employees and their families when the tragedy occurred. Investigations following the disaster raised questions about the ship's seaworthiness and inspection of Great Lakes steamers in general.
  3. Stephen A. Douglas in Quincy

    Statesman and politician Stephen A. Douglas began his distinguished national career in Quincy. A re

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  4. Origins of Calumet City and Abraham Lincoln Funeral Train

    Two blocks north of this corner the funeral train of Abraham Lincoln entered Illinois at approximately 10:15 a.m. on May 1, 1865, on the Michigan Central Railroad right-of-way.

    In the autumn of 1869, the founders of the state slaughter house walked east along the railroad tracks and they searched for a suitable site to establish their business. The property they chose was north of the tracks on the east side of the Illinois-Indiana border. The company shipped its first load of dressed, refrigerated beef out of Hammond in October.

    Within a few years, some of the land south of the tracks on the Illinois side, once owned by Stephen A. Douglas, an attorney for the Michigan Central and a political colleague of Lincoln, became home to many employees of the packing plant. By 1891, the plant was known as G.H. Hammond and Company and employed approximately 1,000 men and women, many of whom lived in the neighborhoods on or just off State Street, including Freitag's Subdivision, which had been created in 1879 in the vicinity of Lincoln Avenue and State Street. Freitag's Subdivision and the residential neighborhoods on Douglas, Ingraham, Forsythe, and Plummer Avenues and the commercial establishments along State Street were incorporated as the village of West Hammond, Illinois, in 1893 and became know as Calumet City in 1924.
  5. West Side Grounds: Home Field of the Chicago National League Ball Club from 1893 to 1915

    First Game: May 14 1893 (Cincinnati 13, Chicago 12)
    Last Game: October 3, 1915 (Chicago 7, St. Louis 2)
    Seating Capacity: 16,000
    Career Record at West Side Grounds: 1,018 Wins, 640 Losses
    World Series Championships: 1907, 1908
    National League Championships: 1906, 1907, 1908, 1910

    In 1891 the Chicago Ball Club purchased this site and built a ballpark for $30,000. Bordered by Polk, Lincoln (Walcott), Taylor, and Wood Street, the ballpark had a covered grandstand of steel and wood, open-air seating along both foul lines, and an upper deck with box seats.

    In 1906 the Chicago Cubs at West Side Grounds won a major league record 116 games and the ballpark hosted the first intra-city World Series game between the Chicago Cubs and the Chicago White Sox. In 1907 and 1908 the Chicago Cubs became the first team to win consecutive World Series titles. The ballpark hosted its last World Series in 1910 between the Cubs and the Philadelphia Athletics.

    The Chicago Cubs moved to Weeghman Park (Wrigley Field) in 1916. West Side Grounds was sold in 1919 for $40,000 to the State of Illinois for a research and educational hospital from which grew the nation's largest medical district.

    The phrase "Way out in left field" originated at the West Side Grounds, due to the location of a psychiatric hospital behind the ballpark's left field fence, where players and fans could hear patients making odd and strange remarks during games.
  6. Auntie Gogin's Store

    On this block Mary Ann (Elwell) Gogin operated a general merchandise store in the late nineteenth century. One of the first women in Illinois to own and manage her own store, Mrs. Gogin was affectionately known as 'Auntie' to the residents of Palestine.
  7. Cairo, Illinois

    Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix, a French Jesuit, reported as early as 1721 that the land at t

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  8. Fort Foot

    About 1813 the William Eaton family and other restless pioneers considered Fort LaMotte too crowded and therefore constructed a new stockade on a site several hundred yards north of here. A family trait of the Eatons, large feet, led to the name of Fort Foot.
  9. Steamboats on the Mississippi River

    In 1817 the Zebulon M. Pike reached St. Louis, the northern-most steamboat port on the Mississippi

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  10. Governor Augustus C. French

    On this site stood the home of Augustus C. French (1808-1864) when he was elected the ninth Governor of Illinois. The early settlers in Illinois came mostly from southern states so that French, a native of New Hampshire, was the first "Yankee" to be elected Governor.
  11. Houston-Dickson Store

    Two early residents of Palestine, John Houston and Francis Dickson, purchased this lot as the site for a combination dwelling and store about 1818. By 1820 their stock of merchandise provided nearby settlers with goods which they previously had to bring from Indiana.
  12. Hutson Memorial

    Hutsonville was named after the Isaac Hutson family massacred by Indians in 1813 at a spot sixty-four rods due east of this marker. Hutson was killed later in a skirmish with the Indians near Fort Harrison, Indiana.
  13. Kitchell Grist Mill

    In this area Joseph Kitchell, who settled here in 1817, erected a grist mill and distillery which eliminated the trip to Shakertown, Indiana where the farmers had previously taken their grain. Horses were used for power, grain was taken in pay, converted to whiskey and sold to settlers.
  14. Palestine, Illinois

    This area reminded Frenchman John LaMotte of the land of milk and honey, Palestine. While a member of the LaSalle exploring party, he became separated from the group, traveled down the Wabash River, and first gazed upon the region in 1678. Other French settlers came during the 18th century. Then, by 1812, the westward moving Americans began constructing Fort LaMotte. As the palisade filled with settlers, those desiring more room moved a few miles to the northwest and established Fort Foot.

    The settlers in Fort LaMotte were the core of the town of Palestine. Platted in 1818 by Joseph Kitchell and Edward Cullom, the settlement served until 1843 as the Crawford County seat. The growth of the town lagged until a United States Land Office, opened in 1821, gave new importance to the community. Then, people came to buy land, to attend court, for entertainment, and to have their grain milled. Others, like Abraham Lincoln in 1830, passed through the bustling town on their way to settle in Illinois.

    The land office continued to give prominence to Palestine. Robert A. Kinzie came in 1831 to purchase 102 acres for $127.68, an area which became the nucleus of Chicago. Augustus C. French (1808-1864) served as a Receiver in the Land Office from 1839 to 1843. A native of New Hampshire, he was the first 'Yankee' to be elected Governor of Illinois. Chosen in 1846, French was forced to stand for re-election under the new constitution of 1848 and won.
  15. John Mitchell, 1870-1919

    Pioneer resident of Spring Valley. Achieved national prominence in the settlement of the Pennsylvan

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  16. Barbed Wire Manufacturing 1837-1938

    This house, built in 1861, was the home of Joseph Glidden, who in 1873 invented barbed wire fencing. With Phineas W. Vaughn he perfected a machine to manufacture it. DeKalb was the home of
    Isaac L. Ellwood and Jacob Haish, also manufacturers of barbed wire. Haish developed the S-barb. DeKalb became the manufacturing center for barbed wire, significant in the development of the west.
  17. Owen Lovejoy Home

    The two-story frame structure was the home of abolitionist Owen Lovejoy, who was born in Maine in 1

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  18. Shabbona

    In the early 1800's Shabbona was a principal chief of the Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Chippewa group of tribes which banded together to form 'The Three Fires.' Shabbona camped briefly in a large grove one-half mile south of here. He fought with the British in the War of 1812 and later helped the settlers of northern Illinois by warning of Indian uprisings during the Winnebago outbreak. In the Black Hawk War, Shabbona alerted pioneers to impending Indian raids and offered to lead an attack against the Sauk and Fox Tribes.
  19. Army Trail Road

    This road followed an Indian trail that began in Chicago and went through DuPage, Kane, DeKalb, Boone, and Winnebago Counties to a Winnebago village at Beloit, Wisconsin. In August, 1832, during the Black Hawk War, United States Army reinforcements from the eastern department followed the trail. Their General, Winfield Scott, left Chicago ahead of the troops and took a different route to the war area.Delayed by cholera, his men did not reach the front until after the Black Hawk's defeat. The tracks left by heavy army wagons formed a road for early settlers.
  20. Abraham Lincoln

    Abraham Lincoln spoke in the oak grove of General William Pickering north of here in the presidential campaign of 1840.

    He was stumping southern Illinois as a Whig elector for General William Henry Harrison in the Tippecanoe and Tyler Too campaign.

    In 1861 Lincoln appointed Pickering Governor of Washington Territory.
  21. Shimer College

    Mount Carroll Seminary was founded as a coeducational institution in 1853 by Frances Ann Wood (late

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  22. Stone Arch Bridge on the Galena Road, A

    The Stone Arch Bridge that stands to the east of the present highway was on the Galena Road, once t

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  23. Blackwell's White House

    Colonel Robert Blackwell's new two-story frame store and boardinghouse opened on this site in time for the convening of the Ninth General Assembly on December 1, 1834. He advertised board and lodging for 'thirty or forty.'
  24. Cumberland Road

    Vandalia was the western terminus of the Cumberland or National Road which extended eighty feet wide for 591 miles from Cumberland, Maryland through Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. Illinois construction by the Federal Government began in 1811 and ceased in 1838, the approximate cost being seven million dollars.
  25. First State Capitol, 1820-1823

    The first capitol building owned by the State was erected on this site. It was a thirty by forty feet two-story frame structure. The Second and Third Illinois General Assemblies met here, the House on the first floor and the Senate on the second. This building was destroyed by fire on December 9, 1823.
  26. Flack's Hotel

    In 1836 Colonel Abner Flack took over the large three-story frame building which stood here, and operated it under the name Vandalia Inn. In 1853-1854 it was the headquarters for Chief Engineer Charles F. Jones, in charge of construction of the Illinois Central Railroad.
  27. Fort Handy

    Fort Handy, built in 1816, was located 1200 feet southeast of this park on a knoll. The fort, the o

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  28. Indian Creek Massacre (New)

    On May 21, 1832, Potawatomi Indians, angered over the damming of Indian Creek by local settlers, attacked and murdered fifteen men, women, and children of the Indian Creek Settlement, located on this site. Two of the girls, Rachel (15) and Sylvia (19) Hall, were taken hostage for eleven days and later ransomed. The Potawatomi chieftain Shabbona, warned settlers of an impending attack but his appeals were ignored. For his role in trying to warn the settlers, Shabbona was thereafter called “The White Man’s Friend,” and given title to a track of land now known as Shabbona Grove. The massacre at Indian Creek happened at the same time as Black Hawk and 1,000 Sauk and Fox tribesmen, women, and children returned to Illinois, provoking the Black Hawk War and leading to atrocities on both sides. Rachel and Sylvia Hall, who were taken to Black Hawk’s camp, survived captivity and lived to old age, their lives spared by two members of the Sauk and Fox tribe. Shabbona, an invited guest to the Lincoln-Douglas debate in Ottawa in August 1858, died the following year and is buried in Morris, Illinois.
  29. Home of John A. and Mary Logan, 1856-1861

    John A. Logan 1826-1886, U.S. Representative 1859-1862, 1867-1871; Civil War General, 1861-1865; U.S. Senator, 1871-1877, 1879-1886; Vice presidential Candidate with James Blaine 1884. He established Memorial Day as a National holiday on 1868. John A. Logan and Mary Cunningham were married in Shawneetown on November 27, 1855, and then moved to Benton where John practiced law. They lived in a small frame house on this site. Mary moved to Carbondale in 1861 where she remained during the Civil War.
  30. Westfield College

    For more than fifty years Westfield College was located on this site. It was founded as a seminary

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  31. Boone's Mill

    Jonathon Boone, an older brother of the famous Pathfinder Daniel Boone, built a mill on this site about 1800. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1730 and died here about 1808. His son Joseph continued to operate the mill. In 1813 Joseph was named to mark out a road from Burnt Prairie to Shawneetown by way of his mill. On August 24, 1814, he purchased the millsite from the Federal Land Office at Shawneetown. The mill was used as a landmark by the State Legislature in describing the boundary line separating White from Gallatin County. Joseph sold the land in 1818. He died in Mississippi in 1827.
  32. General Dean Suspension Bridge

    This bridge was built in 1859 at a cost of $40,000 and used for nearly seventy years. Previously, t

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  33. Charleston Riot, The

    On March 28, 1864, a gunfight erupted here between Union soldiers and Civil War opponents known as

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  34. Marshall House

    This was the original site of the home of John Marshall, one of the founders and president of the Bank of Illinois, the first bank chartered by the Illinois Legislature. The charter was issued in 1816. The bank opened at Shawneetown in 1817, suspended operations in the mid-1820's and reopened from 1834 to 1842. Marshall was active in business and politics. In 1818 he was elected a legislature from Gallatin County to the first Illinois General Assembly. He died in 1858.
  35. Old Salt Works

    One mile south was located one of the oldest salt works west of the Alleghenies. Here Indians and French made salt, while at a later day Americans established a commercial salt industry which finally attained a production of 500 bushels a day.
  36. Rawlings' Hotel

    One of Shawneetown's earliest brick buildings, Rawlings' Hotel, stood on this lot. It was built in 1821-1822 for Moses Rawlings, who owned it until 1841. On May 7, 1825, it was the site of a reception held for the Marquis de Lafayette during his visit to America, 1824-1825. Accompanied by Illinois' Governor Edward Coles and other dignitaries, Lafayette walked between two long lines of people from the river's edge to the hotel. The building was one of eleven destroyed by fire, June 23, 1904.
  37. Shawneetown, Illinois (missing)

    Ancient mounds rise above the low ground of Gallatin County in several places to testify to a prehistoric life here. The northern section of Shawneetown rests on ancient burial mounds. For a short time in the mid-eighteenth century the Shawnee Indians had a village here. The first settler arrived about 1800 and others soon followed. The federal government laid out Shawneetown in 1810, before the surrounding area was surveyed. The town grew as the trading post and the shipping point for salt from the United States Salines near Equality and as a major point of entry for emigrants from the east. In 1814 the United States Land Office for South-eastern Illinois opened at Shawneetown. Two state memorials - in Shawneetown - the first bank in the territory (1816) and the imposing state bank building (1839), mark the community's early prominence as the financial center of Illinois. According to legend several Chicagoans applied for a loan in 1830 to improve their village but were turned away because Chicago was too far from Shawneetown to ever amount to anything. The Ohio River which contributed to the early importance of the town was always a threat to its existence. In 1937 the angry yellow waters rushed over the levees and rose in the town until they lapped the second floor of the State Bank building. It was then that most of the residents moved northwest to the hills and rebuilt Shawneetown, although some still clung to the original site.
  38. Lincoln-Douglas Debate

    On September 18, 1858, the fourth of the famous joint debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A

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  39. Thomas Carlin

    Thomas Carlin, sixth elected Governor of Illinois (1838-1842), was an early settler of Illinois and a prominent figure in organizing Greene County and establishing Carrollton as its county seat in 1821.

    Born in Kentucky in 1789, Carlin came to the Illinois Territory and served in the War of 1812. He settled on farm land, part of which is now Carrollton.

    He served as the county's first sheriff (1821), as a captain in the Black Hawk Militia (1832), as a state senator (1825-1833), and as a land office receiver (1834).

    He died in 1852 and is buried in Carrollton City Cemetery.
  40. Diamond Mine Disaster, The

    The Diamond Mine of the Wilmington Coal Mining and Manufacturing Company, located near Braidwood on the Grundy-Will County line, was the site of a major mine disaster in Illinois.

    The mine was on a marshy tract of land that had no natural drainage. At midday of February 16, 1883, the east side of the mine collapsed from the weight of melting snow, ice, and heavy rains. An alarm was sounded, and miners who were near the escapement shaft hurried to the surface. The main passage to the shaft flooded rapidly, and the weight of the water sealed the ventilation doors in the tunnels. Escape became impossible, and rescue attempts were futile.

    Other mines in the area suspended operations, and their workers helped build a dam on the site. For thirty-eight days seven steam pumps removed water from the mine. Volunteers descended the shaft on March 25, and the first bodies were recovered on March 26. The recovery effort was hampered by accumulations of debris and gas as well as by falling rock. Several days later the mine was sealed with the remaining forty-six bodies entombed.

    Numerous men and boys died in the disaster; two were thirteen years of age, and two were fourteen. Contributions for families of the victims were received from across the United States and totaled more than $42,000, including $10,000 appropriated by the Illinois General Assembly. In 1898 the United Mine Workers of America placed a monument at the site.
  41. Carthage, Illinois

    Hancock County, established in 1829, had no permanent county seat for four years. On February 13, 1833, the General Assembly commissioned William Gilham, Scott Riggs and John Hardin to establish a permanent county seat, which was named Carthage and was incorporated in 1837.

    Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon Church, and his brother Hyrum were shot to death in the Old Carthage Jail on June 27, 1844. Joseph had chosen Nauvoo as headquarters for the Church in 1839, and by 1844 Hancock County was a Mormon Center. However, unrest concerning the authority of the Mormon leaders was extensive. When an anti-Mormon newspaper in Nauvoo was destroyed, Joseph and Hyrum were jailed at Carthage to await trial. Governor Thomas Ford assigned the Carthage Grays, a militia unit, to guard them. A mob overpowered the guards and rushed the captives who with two Mormon friends, Willard Richards and John Taylor, occupied an unlocked, second floor room in the jail.

    Hyrum was killed and the Prophet was shot several times before he fell from a window to the ground. Taylor, later the leader of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (1877-1887), recovered from his wounds while Richards was uninjured. Conflict between Mormons and their neighbors continued until the Mormons completed their exodus from Illinois (1846). The Mormons have restored the Old Carthage Jail.

    During the 1858 U. S. Senatorial campaign Stephen A. Douglas spoke at Carthage on October 11 and Abraham Lincoln spoke on October 22.
  42. Icarian Community in Nauvoo

    A communal society of French Icarians was established at Nauvoo on 1849. Led by Etienne Cabet, a French political theorist, the Icarians believed that all property must be held communally. The community was incorporated by the Illinois General Assembly in early 1851. At that time it had 355 members. They operated their own sawmill and grist mill and a commercial distillery. Disputes later arose over Cabet's leadership, and the Icarians began to resettle in other states. The Nauvoo community survived, however, until about 1860 - longer than any other secular communal society in Illinois.
  43. Nauvoo, Illinois

    Nauvoo was once the site of a Sauk and Fox Village. After the Indians moved west of the Mississippi, promoters attempted to develop town sites here but the marshy bottom lands attracted few settlers.

    In 1839, the Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith chose the town, then called Commerce, as the home for his followers, who had been driven from Missouri. The Mormons named the community Nauvoo, said to mean 'beautiful place,' and obtained a special charter from the Illinois legislature, which gave the city government its own courts, militia, university, and all other governmental powers not prohibited by the federal and state constitutions.

    Mormon converts from all parts of America and Europe soon swelled the population to about 15,000 making Nauvoo one of the largest cities in Illinois by 1845. But some of the Mormons as well as their gentile neighbors began to resent the civil and religious authority of the Mormon leaders, and frictions in the area grew severe. When the Nauvoo City Council had an anti-Mormon newspaper destroyed, the Mormon leaders were arrested and jailed at Carthage. There, on June 27, 1844, an armed mob shot and killed Joseph Smith and his brother, Hyrum. Conflict between the Mormons and their neighbors continued until 1846 when the Mormons completed their exodus from the state.

    In 1849, Etienne Cabet's followers, the Icarians, came to Nauvoo to practice their form of religious communism but dissensions soon weakened the colony. Their experiment lasted less than ten years.
  44. Bertha Van Hoosen, M.D.

    At this site on November 18, 1915, was founded the American Medical Women's Association, dedicated

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  45. Welcome to Illinois

    In 1673 the areas of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers were explored by Frenchmen Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette. Their voyages resulted in French claims on the area until 1763 when, by the Treaty of Paris, France ceded the land to Great Britain. During the American Revolution the Illinois Territory was won for the Commonwealth of Virginia by George Rogers Clark and his army. In 1784 it became part of the Northwest Territory and on December 3, 1818 Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state.

    U.S. Route 136 enters Illinois at Hamilton, north of Warsaw, the site of Fort Edwards erected during the War of 1812 to counter British influence at Rock Island. It proceeds east through Carthage where, in 1844, the jailed Mormon leader Joseph Smith was killed defending himself from an angry mob. The highway crosses the Illinois River at Havana and runs east passing north of Lincoln, Illinois, the site of the reconstructed Postville Court House. While Practicing law on the 8th Judicial Circuit Abraham Lincoln attended trials in the original building. Route 136 passes south of Funks Grove named for Isaac Funk one of a group of farmers who raised large herds of cattle for shipment to eastern markets.

    Route 136 exits Illinois northeast of Danville, home of Joseph "Uncle Joe" Cannon the powerful speaker of the US House of Representatives. Along its approximate 235 mile length Route 136 passes through eight of Illinois' 102 counties and three of its county seats.
  46. Fluorite Mining

    Fluorite, the official Illinois State Mineral, was discovered in 1839 by James Anderson while digging a well near Fairview Landing one half mile SW of this site. Fluorite was a waste product until the steel industry began using the mineral in their open hearth process in 1888. Rosiclare Lead and Fluorspar Mining Co., located 255 yards NW of this site, was the first major producer of fluorite. The largest and deepest fluorite mines in the world are located in Hardin County. For many years these mines have produced about three-fourths of the fluorite mined in the United States.
  47. Burial Site of Josette Beaubien

    Josette Beaubien, a survivor of the Fort Dearborn Massacre, was buried here in 1845. She was marrie

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  48. Benjamin Dann Walsh

    Benjamin Dann Walsh, Illinois state entomologist from 1867 to 1869, was a pioneer in the application of insect study to agriculture. Born in England in 1808, he earned his Master’s Degree from Trinity College in England in 1833. Though intended for the ministry, he chose the literary field and wrote for newspapers and magazines for several years. A man of varied interests, he published a pamphlet on university reform and a translation of The Comedies of Aristophanes. In 1838 he married Rebecca Finn and came to the United States.

    From Chicago he moved to a farm near Cambridge where he remained for thirteen years. In 1851 he moved to Rock Island and engaged in the lumber business until 1858. Thereafter, he devoted himself to his long time hobby of entomology and was soon a recognized leader in the field. His first published entomological work appeared in 1860. In his lifetime he published 385 titles plus an additional 478 in collaboration with Charles V. Riley, another well-known entomologist. Walsh contributed regularly to the Prairie Farmer, Valley Farmer, and Illinois Farmer, was an editor of the Practical Entomologist, and was co-founder and editor of the American Entomologist with Riley. His private collection numbered 30,000 insects. His insect studies impressed scientists and, perhaps more important, agriculturists. He was one of the first to advocate that farmers use scientists’ methods to control insects. His death on November 18, 1869 resulted from a railroad accident near Rock Island.
  49. Bishop Hill

    Two miles north of here, religious dissident immigrants from Sweden founded the communal society of Bishop Hill in 1846. The charismatic Erik Jansson lead the society spiritually and temporally until 1850 when he was murdered.

    By 1854, a total of 1200 followers of all ages and backgrounds had arrived at Bishop Hill. Overcoming many hardships and trials, 12,000 acres of virgin land was improved for agricultural purposes. Various crops, including flax, broom corn and grain were grown. Orchards were also planted and furniture was manufactured.

    In 1861, dissatisfaction and disillusionment resulted in a breakup of the society and the land was divided among the members.
  50. Dixie Highway, The

    The Dixie Highway was the first national road linking industrial northern states to agricultural so

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  51. Woodland Palace

    This was the home of Fred Francis, inventor and innovator, artist and poet. Born near Kewanee in 1856, he graduated from the Illinois Industrial University, Urbana, in 1878. While there, he was one of the designers and builders of the 'Class of 78' clock, now in the north tower of the Illini Union. In this home, which he built, he incorporated many innovations, including a water purification system and air conditioning. Francis died in 1926 and bequeathed this estate to the City of Kewanee, to be maintained as a city park and museum.
  52. Butterfield Trail

    For many years Butterfield Trail was one of the main routes from east-central Illinois to the Chicago area. In 1831 Ben Butterfield marked out the trail from Danville to Lockport, where he had settled the previous year. The trail crossed Spring Creek two miles northwest of Buckley. Following an old Indian trail, it stayed west of the creek, continuing northward and passing this point. It avoided the Iroquois River and forded the Kankakee west of Bourbonnais. Thence it ran to Hickory Creek and the Des Plaines River. At a point near Joliet it forked, both forks leading to Chicago.
  53. Origins of Calumet City and Abraham Lincoln Funeral Train

    Two blocks north of this corner the funeral train of Abraham Lincoln entered Illinois at approximat

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  54. First Coal Mine in Illinois

    The first coal mine in Illinois was located one-half mile south of here along the south bank of the Big Muddy River. William Boone and his indentured servant, a man name Peter, loaded a small raft with coal from an outcropping and, after floating down the Big Muddy and the Mississippi, they unloaded the coal in New Orleans on November 10, 1810. The coal was used for blacksmithing. In the next two years they repeated the venture six more times and others soon joined in the operation, including Joseph Duncan, a future governor of Illinois.

    While there had been earlier sightings of coal along the Illinois River, historians credit Boone’s mine as the beginning of the industry in Illinois. Until 1823 Jackson County was the only county in Illinois to produce coal and all the mines were in the immediate area of Boone’s first mine. The mines were drift mines where coal was removed by tunneling into the banks along the river. During the first five years about one hundred tons were being mined annually.

    Following the Civil War the mines along the Big Muddy were consolidated into the Grand Tower Manufacturing, Mining, and Transportation Company. Coal was transported by rail, which came to be called the “Granny Line,” to Grand Tower for the iron blast furnaces there and to supply fuel for the Mississippi River steam boats. The Big Muddy mine was the genesis of the mammoth coal industry in Illinois which brought prosperity and thousands of jobs to the state.
  55. Green Plains

    Here once stood the thriving community of Green Plains. Established in the early 1830s, the settlement straddled four Hancock County Townships and included log homes, a store, a blacksmith shop, a post office, and several cemeteries. Levi Williams, a prominent settler who moved to Green Plains in the early 1830s, served as a county road commissioner and later as postmaster. In 1840 he was commissioned a colonel in the 59th Regiment in the state militia, commanding the Carthage Greys. He played a prominent role in military actions against the Latter-Day Saints and their leader, Joseph Smith. Williams died in 1860 and is buried in the Green Plains Cemetery, located one-half mile north. The community was abandoned in the 1860s.

    Green Plains was also home to Mormon refugees, including the family of William W. Taylor. Born in 1787 in Martin County, North Carolina, Taylor married Elizabeth Patrick in 1811. In 1831, the family moved to Monroe County, Missouri, and joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. The Taylors were forced to leave Missouri in 1838 under the Extermination Orders of Governor Lilburn W. Boggs. Taylor died 9 September 1839 leaving Elizabeth a widow with 14 children. He was buried 300 feet east of this spot with about 40 others in the Old Pioneer Cemetery on land once owned by Levi Williams. Elizabeth immigrated with most of her children to Utah where she died in 1880.
  56. Historic Nauvoo

    In 1839 the Mormons, or Latter Day Saints, settled at Nauvoo and made it their chief city. During their residence its population reached 15,000. After long friction with non-Mormons the Mormons were expelled in 1846. Three years later French Communists called Icarians established a society here which lasted until 1857.
  57. George Rogers Clark Campsite (3rd)

    Lt. Col. Clark and his troop of 170 Virginians camped near here on July 2, 1778. It was their third campsite during a march from Fort Massac to Kaskaskia to capture that post from the British. Earlier that day, the troop was lost for a time on Phelp's Prairie. The next day, they would cross the Big Muddy River at Marshall's Ford. The Kaskaskia attack and a later one at Vincennes, Indiana, secured the Illinois Territory for the United States during the Revolutionary War.
  58. George Rogers Clark Campsite (4th)

    In the third year of the American War for Independence, Lt. Col. George Rogers Clark and his army of 170 Virginia volunteers camped five miles southeast of here. On July 2, 1778, Clark made the fourth of five camps on his march from Fort Massac to Kaskaskia. Two days later, Clark liberated Kaskaskia, and then moved east to Vincennes, thus securing the Illinois Territory from the British and their Indian allies.
  59. Fort La Motte

    About 1812, the settlers in this area built Fort LaMotte for protection from hostile Indians. The p

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  60. Appellate Courthouse

    This building was constructed for the Southern Division of the Illinois Supreme Court, one of three Divisions created by the Constitution of 1848. Court met in lodge halls in Mount Vernon prior to completion of the center section of this building about 1857. The 1870 Constitution established a system of Appellate Courts and Mount Vernon was named the seat of the Fourth District. The Supreme Court shared the building until 1897, after which all of its sessions were held in Springfield.
  61. Mt. Vernon Car Mfg. Co

    When railroads were king, The Mt. Vernon Car Manufacturing Company brought prosperity and recognition to this community. With freight car building being the primary business, the Mt. Vernon Car Manufacturing Company's products were sold to institutions which carried its name all across the civilized world. Established on April 16, 1890, it was in operation for 64 years.

    In 1926, The Mount Vernon Car Manufacturing Company erected this building as its central office. In addition to having the largest payroll for its era, its local tax revenue made a large contribution to the economic expansion of this community.
  62. Hamilton Primary School

    In 1834 Dr. Silas Hamilton, physician and humanitarian, bequeathed $4,000 for construction and operation of a building for educational and religious purposes. A stone school was opened in 1836, and the tuition-free education for local students attracted families to this area. The school was razed in 1872, rebuilt and enlarged, with the original stones at the base. Classes were held here until 1971.

    George Washington, a slave freed by Dr. Hamilton, studied here, became successful, and established a perpetual scholarship fund for Americans of African descent. He also provided for the erection of a monument to his former master.
  63. Apple River Fort

    Here, during the Black Hawk War, was located Apple River Fort, constructed by 45 residents in response to rumors of an Indian uprising. The 10,000 sq. foot fort with walls 12 feet high contained several cabins and a two story blockhouse. On June 24, 1832, Black Hawk and 200 warriors attacked while most of the men were out hunting. Elizabeth Armstrong rallied the women and defenders until relief arrived. Only one frontiersman, George W. Herlerode, lost his life during the 45 minute battle. In honor of Mrs. Armstrong, the Apple River Settlement was renamed Elizabeth on November 25, 1842.
  64. Palestine, Illinois

    This area reminded Frenchman John LaMotte of the land of milk and honey, Palestine. While a member

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  65. United States Land Office

    A United States Land Office was located at this site in 1820 and operated until 1855. Settlers from

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  66. De Soto House, The

    Opened in April, 1855, the five-story, 240 room De Soto House was "the largest and most luxurious hotel in the West." Abraham Lincoln spoke from its balcony in 1856 and Stephen A. Douglas in 1858. Ulysses S. Grant maintained his 1868 presidential campaign headquarters here. By 1880 Galena's prosperity had faded and the hotel's two upper stories were removed.
  67. George Rogers Clark Campsite (2nd)

    This marker commemorates the July 1, 1778, campsite for Lt. Col. Clark's troop of 170 volunteers. At the time, the site had a nearby spring and was north of a place called Buffalo Gap. The men were marching from Fort Massac to capture the British post at Kaskaskia. This attack and a later one at Vincennes, Indiana, prevented the British and their Indian allies from invading Kentucky. It also secured the Illinois Territory for the United States during the Revolutionary War.
  68. Billy and Ma Sunday

    Evangelist William 'Billy' Sunday and his wife Helen 'Ma' Sunday owned this farm, 1899-1913, and spent their summers here. Ma was born on the farm. Billy was born in Ames, Iowa, in 1862. He played outfield for Chicago and other National League Baseball Clubs, 1883-1890. From 1896 until his death in 1935 he conducted religious revivals in cities and towns across the nation. His wife shared his work. In May-June 1900 Billy led a month-long revival in West Dundee Park.
  69. Elgin Milk Condensing Company

    Gail Borden, pioneer in the food preservative industry, established a milk condensing plant on this site in 1865. His discovery incorporated a process by which water was evaporated from milk, and sugar added as a preservative. This process, patented in 1856, increased the availability and variety in dairy products, allowing the populace a sanitary and nourishing alternative to fresh milk. The stringent procedures he employed inspired high standards, revolutionizing the dairy industry by 1881. This company was the largest of its kind and a major factor in determining Elgin's reputation as a dairy center. Production ceased in 1918 due to the rising cost of milk. Elgin's Gail Borden Library, located nearby, is named in his honor.
  70. Elgin National Watch Company

    From 1866 to 1966 this site was occupied by the Elgin National Watch Company. This was the first watch factory built west of the Alleghenies and grew to become the world's largest. During its lifetime over 60 million "Elgin" watches were manufactured here. The building was highlighted by a 144 foot tall clock tower containing dials with numerals three feet in length - a foot longer than those of London's "Big Ben." Located nearby was an observatory built for astronomical time determination before the advent of national standards. The observatory is now used as a planetarium by School District U-46.
  71. Elgin Road Races

    This marker is along the "south leg" of the Elgin road races. Beginning in 1910, many leading drivers and mechanics competed here in grueling tests of speed and endurance that contributed to the development of the modern automobile.

    Manufacturers were attracted to these races because the course had no cross roads, steep hills, railroad tracks, or population centers to reduce the car's speed. The race's success was enhanced by proximity to Chicago and the cooperation of area farmers.

    The 8-1/2 mile route consisted of oil-soaked dirt and gravel roads. From here, the course extended east onto Larkin Avenue, north on McLean Boulevard, west on Highland Avenue, south on Coombs Road, then east again on Galena Road - now route 20.

    The first entries were factory stock models with the fenders and windshields removed. Beginning in 1911, race cars designed for the Indianapolis 500 were allowed to compete.Thousands of spectators attended each year as racing continued from 1911 through 1915. After being suspended during World War I, the contests resumed in 1919 and 1920 - a period when cars took on a more streamlined appearance.

    The Elgin Races lost favor as motorists and farmers objected to road closures. For safety reasons, open road courses like these were replaced by closed track racing. After a revival in 1933 to coincide with the Chicago World's Fair, the Elgin Road races passed into automotive history.
  72. Illinois Watch Case Company

    For more than 70 years, this site was occupied by the Illinois Watch Case Company. The firm was a leader in the domestic watch industry and by the 1920's had produced more than 30 million watch cases.

    A subsidiary produced jewelry goods, lockets, cigarette lighters, and the famed "Elgin American" ladies compacts. During World War II, the company won an Army-Navy Excellence Award for its production of mortar shells and war-related materials.

    Foreign competition and a changing market eventually led to an end of production in the early 1960's.
  73. Pinkerton's Early Home

    Allan Pinkerton, famous detective, had his home and cooperage on this lot, 1844-1850. Here he sheltered and employed slaves escaping to freedom. After helping to capture some counterfeiters, he became deputy sheriff of Kane County in 1848. In 1850 he founded his detective agency in Chicago. In February 1861 he was the bodyguard of President-Elect Abraham Lincoln on the train trip to Washington. Early in the Civil War he directed the spy service of the Union Army.
  74. Bourbonnais Grove

    Bourbonnais Grove's first families came from Quebec's upper St. Lawrence Valley in the 1830s and 40s to settle what would become the largest 19th century French Canadian agrarian village in Illinois. Some immigrants moved on to found St. Anne, St. Mary, L'Erable, and Papineau. In 1865 Viateurian fathers established St. Viateur College. The Letourneau Home Museum, Maternity BVM Church and surviving Viateurian buildings are memorials to these French Canadians who were an influential part of Illinois' pioneer population.
  75. Durham-Perry Family Legacy, The

    Thomas Durham bought 160 acres on this site in 1835 from Gurdon S. Hubbard. Known as the Jonveau Reserve, the land lay in an area called Bourbonnais Grove. Durham opened 20 acres for cultivation in January 1836. Parts of Cook and Iroquois counties became Will County, and Durham's Farm became park of the Rock Village Precinct. Durham was elected precinct commissioner. He petitioned to have the Bourbonnais Trace (now IL Route 102) made a state road. Durham became Bourbonnais Grove's postmaster in 1849 and remained so until Kankakee County was formed in 1853. He died in 1854, was buried on this site, and left the farm to his sons.

    David Perry came to Bourbonnais Grove in 1840, built a mill and married Durham's daughter, Martha. He bought the farm from Durham's sons in 1866. When he died in 1847, his son Alvah inherited the farm. A tenant farmer maintained the land while Alvah and his family lived in Wilmette. They spent summers and holidays at the farmhouse. Alvah died in 1899.

    Lomira Alvah Perry -- a University of Chicago graduate, Kankakee High School's Dean of Girls, and the last living daughter of Alvah -- died in 1961. She left the farm in trust to the State of Illinois. She hoped some part of it could be made a park. In 1986, the State awarded the farm to the Bourbonnais Township Park District.
  76. James Harrison Wilson

    James H. Wilson, American Army Officer, Engineer, and Author, was born in 1837 on his family's farm

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  77. Carl Sandburg Birthplace

    Carl Sandburg, poet and historian, was born in this modest three-room cottage on January 6, 1878. He was the son of a Swedish immigrant railroad worker. Carl attended Lombard college in Galesburg, and his first poetry was published in this town. He later became a journalist and prolific author. His Complete Poems and a biography, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years, won Pulitzer prizes. He also wrote a novel, an autobiography, children's stories, and folksongs. After his death in 1967, his ashes were buried beneath Remembrance Rock behind his birthplace.
  78. Fraker's Grove

    In this area stood a Potawatomi Village when Michael Fraker arrived from Kentucky about 1830. With kindness and understanding he negotiated a peaceful settlement with the Indians and became the first permanent settler in northeastern Knox County. His grave is about one-half mile south of this point.
  79. Adlai Ewing Stevenson II, 1900-1965

    Adlai Ewing Stevenson - Governor of Illinois from 1948 to 1952, twice the Democratic Party Nominee for President, and United States Ambassador to the United Nations - built this residence in 1938. Known as 'The Farm,' the house, outbuildings, and surrounding meadows and woods comprise seventy acres. Throughout his career of public service, Stevenson often returned to The Farm for rest and inspiration. The property is now owned by the Lake County Forest Preserve District.
  80. Andrew C. Cook House

    In 1840, Andrew C. Cook and his wife Mary Oakes came to Wauconda Township from Vermont via the Erie Canal, the Great Lakes to Chicago and then to Wauconda. They purchased 380 acres of land at $1.25 per acre. A log cabin was erected before clearing the land. Early in 1850 he began construction on this rural Greek Revival style farmhouse, making the bricks from the clay and limestone of the nearby area. The house was built in three stages. As seen by the three colors of brick fired at different temperatures and times in his kiln. He was a Stalwart Republican in Lake County politics, holding many offices including township supervisor. The first township meeting was held in this house.
  81. Dwyer Settlement In Lake County, Illinois, The

    In 1837, William Dwyer, his wife Mary, and Mary's brother, Dr. Richard Murphy, a physician, established a claim to the property on this site and created what was known as the Dwyer settlement. The Dwyer's Homestead included a tavern and one of the five stage stops along the Green Bay Trail in Lake County. It became known as the center of social activity: nurturing political, intellectual, and religious ties in the newly settled area. The Dwyer Settlement was the site of St. Ann's Church and Cemetery (1844), the first Catholic Parish in the area.

    William Dwyer served as the first road supervisor for this portion of Green Bay Road and served as a tax collector. Dr. Murphy was appointed first magistrate for the area and, as deputy to the federal marshal, recorded the Lake County Census for 1840. Murphy served for six years (1839-'45) in the Illinois State Legislature, drafting the first Illinois Public School Law, and acting as chair of the State Finance Committee. Dwyer and Dr. Murphy were instrumental in the 1839 formation of Lake County through the division of McHenry County, also in moving the county seat from Libertyville to Waukegan. The Dwyer's Tavern was the first polling place in the area and the site of the first shield township meeting on April 2, 1952. The Dwyer Settlement gave a permanent character to this area and from it grew the community now known as Lake Bluff.
  82. Thomas Carlin

    Thomas Carlin, sixth elected Governor of Illinois (1838-1842), was an early settler of Illinois and

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  83. Clyde William Tombaugh

    Clyde William Tombaugh was born in Streator in 1906. As a young boy he was very interested in the universe and built his own telescope. He moved to Kansas to study astronomy at the state university. He became an assistant at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona at the age of 23. A year later in 1930, while working from reckonings made by Percival Lowell in 1914, Tombaugh discovered the most distant planet in our solar system, which he named Pluto.
  84. First Permanent Norwegian Settlement in the United States

    Here is commemorated the 100th anniversary of the first permanent Norwegian settlement in the United States by Cleng Peerson and other pioneers from Norway. They and their descendants, who still live here have contributed largely to the development of this section of Illinois.
  85. Fort Wilbourn

    On the eminence to the southwest, stood Fort Wilbourn, where the Third Army of Illinois Volunteers was mustered in for service in the Black Hawk War. Here on June 16, 1832 Abraham Lincoln enlisted as a Private in Jacob M. Early's Company, his third enlistment of the war.
  86. Illinois and Michigan Canal

    This historic artery of travel was commenced in 1836 and finished in 1848. By carrying pioneers and their produce between Lake Michigan and the Illinois Valley, it figured largely in the development of Northern Illinois. Superseded by the Deep Waterway after fifty years of use, it is now devoted to recreational purposes.
  87. Indian Creek Massacre (Old)

    On May 20, 1832, hostile Indians, mainly Potawatomi, massacred fifteen men, women and children of the Indian Creek settlement two miles to the west. Two girls, Rachel and Sylvia Hall, were carried into captivity and later ransomed. All had disregarded the warning of Shabbona, the white man's friend.
  88. Nauvoo, Illinois

    Nauvoo was once the site of a Sauk and Fox Village. After the Indians moved west of the Mississippi

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  89. Railroads and the Founding of Mendota

    In 1853 two railroads met near this spot and the community of Mendota was born. Mendota is an Indian word said to mean "crossing of the trails." The Chicago & Aurora Railroad planned to expand southwest from Aurora to meet the Illinois Central Railroad. Meanwhile, the IC was building northward up the middle of the state. Its charter called for its main line to proceed northward from Cairo to the western end of the Illinois & Michigan Canal at LaSalle. From there it was to turn northwest toward the Galena mining district. During a chance meeting of several railroad officers in early 1852 in Boston, the lines agreed to have the C&A and the Central Military Tract Railroad, which would connect Mendota and Galesburg, meet the Illinois Central at the point closest to Aurora. In June of that year, the Illinois legislature authorized extension of the C&A "to a point not less than 15 miles north" of the canal. Thus the curve of the IC toward Galena was moved to a point just north of this marker. In 1856 the C&A and the Central Military Tract Railroads merged and became the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. That line, through recent mergers, has become the Burlington Northern Santa Fe. The Illinois Central, meanwhile, abandoned its line through Mendota in 1985.
  90. To Victory, February 25, 1779

    On February 5, 1779 Colonel George Rogers Clark and his army began the difficult march from Kaskaskia to Fort Sackville at Vincennes. At daybreak on February 21, they began to cross the swollen Wabash near here. They went on to capture Fort Sackville and thus establish a firm American foothold in the northwest.
  91. Vincennes Tract

    The western boundary of the Vincennes Tract passed through this point. The line extended south-southwest thirty-nine miles from present-day Crawford through Lawrence, Wabash, and Edwards Counties in Illinois. The Vincennes Tract was seventy-two miles wide. About six-sevenths of it lay in Indiana. The Illinois portion was the first parcel of land in the Illinois country ceded by Indians. The land was ceded in the Treaty of Greenville, August 5, 1795, and confirmed in a treaty at Fort Wayne, June 7, 1803. Acting for the United States, William Henry Harrison, Governor of Indiana Territory, negotiated the 1803 treaty with the Delaware, Shawnee, Potawatomi, Miami, Eel River, Wea, Kickapoo, Piankashaw, and Kaskaskia tribes. Illinois was then a part of Indiana Territory.
  92. Abraham Lincoln

    Was stationed here during the Black Hawk War in 1832, as captain of volunteers. On April 21, 1832, he enlisted at Richland Creek, Sangamon County, and was elected captain. He was mustered into state service at Beardstown on April 22 and into United States service at the mouth of Rock River May 3. At the mouth of Fox River on May 27, he was mustered out and on the same day re-enlisted as a private in Captain Elijah Iles' Company. At the expiration of this enlistment, he re-enlisted on June 16, at Fort Wilbourn in Captain Jacob M. Early's Company, and was finally mustered out of service on July 10, 1832, at White Water River, Wisconsin.
  93. Bishop Hill

    Two miles north of here, religious dissident immigrants from Sweden founded the communal society of

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  94. Lincoln in the Black Hawk War

    On May 12, 1832 Captain Abraham Lincoln's company of Illinois volunteers camped one mile west. Lincoln re-enlisted in two other companies and was frequently in Dixon. Discharged from service near Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin, on July 10, Lincoln passed through Dixon en route to New Salem.
  95. Mormons in Amboy

    The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints was established in 1852 in southern Wisconsin. On April 6, 1860, Joseph Smith II, son of the Mormon founder, was ordained President-Prophet of the Reorganized Church. The ceremony was held at Goldman's Hall, which stood on this site at Amboy. A Mormon congregation had been organized here about 1840. Smith headed the Reorganized Church until his death in 1914. Church Headquarters was founded at Plano, Illinois in 1866, moved to Lamoni, Iowa, in 1881 and to Independence, Missouri, in 1921.
  96. Old Chicago Trail

    The Old Chicago Trail extended from Fort Dearborn to Galena. A government mail route was established along this Indian trail in 1829. The Potawatomi ceded their territory to the government in 1833. This route became the first East-West stagecoach trail across Northern Illinois. Paw Paw Grove, one of the first settlements along the route, was a midway haven between Chicago and Galena. It was over this trail Poetess Margaret Fuller traveled in 1843, she wrote: "We traveled the blooming plain unmarked by any road, only the friendly track of the wheels which beat, not broke the grass. Our stations were not from town to town, but from grove to grove."
  97. Cardiff, Illinois

    The village of Cardiff was built on this site in 1899, after the discovery of underground coal deposits. A mine was sunk and a relatively large town developed within months. The town, originally known as North Campus, incorporated as the village of Cardiff in May 1900.

    A series of mine explosions from March 12 - 16, 1903, killed nine mine workers. Three men remain entombed in the mine. A second mine was sunk to the west, and mining operations resumed. More than 2,000 people lived in Cardiff at its peak. Cardiff had a church, a school, two banks, two grain elevators, a semi-pro baseball team, a bottling plant, railroad passenger service, a hotel, numerous saloons, and other businesses. Prosperity continued for Cardiff until the high quality coal ran out and the Wabash Railroad, the mine's biggest customer, refused to buy Cardiff coal. The mine closed in 1912.

    A total of 18 men died in mine accidents in Cardiff.

    Almost as fast as the town developed, it disappeared. Houses and other buildings were dismantled or moved whole. Today, the town of Cardiff is gone, yet remains a legally incorporated village. Two large hills of waste from the mine are monuments to the people who lived, worked, and died here. Dozens of acres that had been homes, stores, yards, and streets have now gone back to farmland.
  98. First Coal Mine - Jackson County

    First Coal MineThe first coal mining operations in Illinois took place in the Big Muddy River bluff

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  99. Canal Warehouse

    This stone building was a warehouse on the Illinois and Michigan Canal. It was built by James Clark, a resident of Utica, one year after the canal was completed in 1848. Before the advent of the railroads the canal was the main commercial artery to Chicago. It helped establish Chicago as an important grain market and contributed greatly to the growth of that city and the northern part of the Illinois River Valley. Clark had also constructed five sections of the canal. He operated a general store in his warehouse, which shipped an average of 210,000 bushels of corn and 22,000 bushels of oats per year. It is the only surviving warehouse on canal frontage.
  100. Homes of Chief Waubonsie and Madeline Ogee

    Deep within the Paw Paw Grove, or As-Sim-In-Eh-Kon, Potawatomi Chief Waubonsie and his tribe made their home 1824-1836. At the Treaty of Prairie Du Chien 1829, Madeline Ogee, Potawatomi wife of Joseph Ogee, was granted two sections of land in the granted two sections of land in the grove. Potawatomi, Chippewa, Ottawa Chiefs, Waubonsie, Shabbona, and Sauganash (Billy Caldwell) aided the U.S. Government during the Black Hawk War. At the Treaty of Chicago, 1833, the Potawatomi Confederation ceded approximately 5 million acres of land in northwest Illinois to the government. In 1836 the Indians were removed from their homes to northwest Missouri and southwest Iowa. The Ogee section was sold to David town for $1,000 in silver.
  101. Tampico - Birthplace of President Reagan

    On February 6, 1911, Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th president of the United States, was born in Tampico in an upstairs apartment at 111 South Main Street.

    His father, John "Jack" Reagan, of Irish-Catholic ancestry, was a clerk in the H. C. Pitney Store at 122/124 South Main Street and gave Ronald the nickname "Dutch." His mother, Nelle Wilson Reagan, was of Scots-English background. Ronald had one brother, Neil "Moon" Reagan.

    The small town atmosphere of Tampico played an important role in Reagan's formative years. As a child he played on a cannon in this park. The grandchildren of Tampico’s founder, J. W. Glassburn, were his friends and introduced him to horseback riding. In the nearby Hennepin feeder canal, he became an excellent swimmer, a skill he would later use as a lifeguard on the Rock River.

    Both of Reagan’s parents were known for their acting ability in productions at Burden’s Opera House, 102 Main Street. His mother’s Christian influence and local churches had a large bearing on his life and values.

    Ronald Reagan became a sports announcer, a well-known movie star, served as governor of California from 1967–1975, and then as president of the United States from 1981–1989. He died in 2004 and is buried at the Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California.

    Tampico is also the birthplace of Admiral Joseph M. “Bull” Reeves, knows as the “Father of Carrier Aviation.” The town’s Shaheen family became noted for government and legal services.
  102. Chatsworth Wreck: Midnight, August 10-11, 1887, The

    One-half mile north on the Toledo, Peoria & Western Railroad occurred one of the worst wrecks in American rail history. An excursion train - two engines and approximately twenty wooden coaches - from Peoria to Niagara Falls, struck a burning culvert . Of the 500 passengers about 85 perished and scores were injured.
  103. Abraham Lincoln and Lincoln Illinois

    Near this site Abraham Lincoln christened the town with the juice of a watermelon when the first lots were sold on August 27, 1853. President-elect Lincoln spoke here, November 21, 1860, while traveling to Chicago and Lincoln's funeral train stopped here, May 3, 1865, before completing the trip to Springfield.
  104. Deskins Tavern

    On this site Dr. John Deskins erected a tavern in 1836. Abraham Lincoln, David Davis, and other lawyers frequently stayed overnight here while the Eighth Judicial Court was in session at the Postville Court House. The judge, lawyers, litigants, witnesses, jurors and prisoners often shared the same dining table.
  105. Apple River Fort

    Here, during the Black Hawk War, was located Apple River Fort, constructed by 45 residents in respo

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  106. DeSoto House, The

    Opened in April, 1855, the five-story, 240 room De Soto House was 'the largest and most luxurious h

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  107. George Field Army Air Corps Base, 1942-1946

    America at war in 1942 needed new bases to complete the training of its Army Air Corps cadets before they joined combat groups overseas. "Allison Prairie" in Lawrence County, Illinois, provided ideal conditions for a field due to its size and varied weather patterns. On April 16, 1942, the War Department announced the selection and began construction in June. On August 10, Colonel George W. Mundy officially took command of the 2,836 acre complex then named George in honor of the late Brigadier General Harold "Pursuit" George.

    The first class of cadets arrived at George Field on October 16. Six days later, Major General Ralph Royce officially dedicated the field before a crowd of 25,000 residents and Army personnel. Colonel Edwin B. Bobzien took command of the field in November.

    Cadets assigned to George Field were ready for advanced two-engine school training in Beech AT-10s, having already completed-flight, primary, and basic training. The school graduated 1,932 cadets in its first year alone. The nineteenth and final class graduated on August 4, 1944.

    George Field served as a glider-towing school after August 15, 1944, for C-47s towing CG4-A gliders designed to carry up to twenty-four men. The 850th troop carrier command and Colonel Tracy K. Dorsett assumed control of the field until the Army closed it on January 31, 1946. The federal government deeded the land and the facility to the City of Lawrenceville in 1948.
  108. Lincoln College

    On Abraham Lincoln's last birthday, February 12, 1865, ground was broken for Lincoln University, now Lincoln College. The town proprietors, Robert B. Latham, John D. Gillett and Virgil Hickox, donated the tract of land for the original campus, and named the school in honor of their friend, Abraham Lincoln.
  109. Elgin Milk Condensing Company

    Gail Borden, pioneer in the food preservative industry, established a milk condensing plant on this

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  110. Lincoln Public Library

    The Lincoln Public Library is a fine example of public neo-classical construction. This W.A. Otis structure was completed in 1903. A stained glass dome and oak woodwork highlight the interior. Major benefactors were Steven Foley who guided its construction, Isabel Nash who willed her home as the site, and the Carnegie Foundation. The Library's history typifies the combination of national wealth, grass roots initiative, and the cultural ideals which generated the free library movement and its goal of a free and educated American society. The Library was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.
  111. Elgin Road Races

    This marker is along the "south leg" of the Elgin road races. Beginning in 1910, many leading drive

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  112. Mount Pulaski Court House

    Mount Pulaski served as the seat of Logan County from 1848 to 1853. The first county court was at Postville, now part of Lincoln, Illinois. In 1848, Logan County voters approved the removal of the court from Postville to Mount Pulaski. Local citizens raised $2,700 toward the construction of this building. Among those attending court here were Abraham Lincoln, Stephen Douglas, Lyman Trumbull, and David Davis. In 1853, the County Seat was moved by legislation to Lincoln. The Mount Pulaski Court House was then used as a school house, later as the City Hall, and, finally, as the Post Office. The State of Illinois acquired the building in 1936.
  113. Niebuhr Family of Theologians

    The Niebuhr family, called “The Trapp Family of Theology” by Time magazine, produced four distinguished professors of Christian studies. In 1902, the Rev. Gustav and Lydia Niebuhr came to Lincoln, where he became pastor of St. John’s Evangelical Church and Deaconess Hospital administrator. All four of their children – Hulda, Walter, Reinhold, and Helmut Richard – were confirmed here.

    After Gustav’s death, Reinhold (1892-1971) assumed the interim pastorate and was ordained at St. John’s on June 29, 1913. From a Detroit pastorate he moved to New York in 1928 and taught at Union Theological Seminary, exerting wide influence in religion and politics through his doctrine of Christian realism. His works include The Serenity Prayer, used by the military, AA and other personal recovery programs. In 1948 he appeared on the cover of Time magazine and in 1964 he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

    H. Richard Niebuhr (1894-1962), an authority on theological ethics and church history, was president of Elmhurst College and taught at Eden Seminary in St. Louis and at Yale for 31 years. His son, Richard R. Niebuhr, taught theology at Harvard from 1956 to 1999. Hulda Niebuhr (1889-1959) taught at Boston University and at McCormick Seminary, Chicago. Lydia’s sister, Adele Hosto, was consecrated a deaconess at St. John’s in 1914 and served in Lincoln beginning in 1942.

    During the Niebuhr pastorate, St. John’s Evangelical Church stood at Fifth and Union Streets. St. John United Church of Christ is that church’s descendant. H. Richard Niebuhr spoke at its dedicate in 1925. Gustav, Lydia and Hulda Niebuhr and Adele Hosto are buried in Union Cemetery in Lincoln.
  114. Postville Park

    In 1835 Russell Post, a Baltimore adventurer, laid out the town of Postville which became the first Logan County seat. The town square is now Postville Park. Here Abraham Lincoln and his friends played townball, a predecessor of baseball, threw the maul, a heavy wooden hammer, and pitched horseshoes.
  115. Robert B. Latham Home

    On this site stood the home of Robert B. Latham who joined John D. Gillett and Virgil Hickox to found the town of Lincoln in 1853. Abraham Lincoln, judges and lawyers of the Eighth Judicial Circuit were frequent guests at his home.
  116. Carl Sandburg Birthplace

    Carl Sandburg, poet and historian, was born in this modest three-room cottage on January 6, 1878. H

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  117. Lincoln in Lawrenceville

    In 1840 Abraham Lincoln, as a Whig elector, campaigned in Southern Illinois for William Henry Harrison, Whig Presidential Candidate. Here in Lawrenceville, on October 28, he had a dispute with a local physician, William G. Anderson, who the previous August had run as a Democrat and lost the election for State Representative. In writing to Lincoln on October 30, Dr. Anderson said that Lincoln was the "aggressor" in the dispute and that his "words imported insult." Lincoln denied the charge, saying that he regretted the incident.
  118. William Maxwell Boyhood Home

    William Maxwell (1908-2000), author and editor, lived in this home from 1910-1920. He often returned to this home and Lincoln in his novels and short stories. His Midwestern childhood, particularly his mother's death in the Spanish influenza epidemic of 1918, influenced much of his writing. He graduated from the University of Illinois, Urbana, and served as fiction editor for The New Yorker from 1936-1976. He wrote 14 works of fiction and memoir and his novel, So Long, See You Tomorrow, won the American Book Award in 1980. His name is etched on the frieze of the Illinois State Library.
  119. Lincoln National Memorial Highway

    From the site of the Lincoln cabin on the Sangamon three miles south of here, to the Wabash River opposite Vincennes, the Lincoln National Memorial Highway follows substantially the route taken by the Lincoln family in their migration from Indiana to Illinois in the Spring of 1830.
  120. Lincoln's First Illinois Home

    On an eminence overlooking the Sangamon River three miles south of here stood the first home of Lincoln in Illinois. To this site came the Lincoln family in March, 1830. Here they lived until 1831, when the parents removed to Coles County and Abraham set out on his own career.
  121. Site of the Lincoln Cabin

    The Lincoln Cabin stood near the north bank of the Sangamon River about 600 yards to the east.
  122. First State Prison in Illinois

    Ruins of the first state prison in Illinois. Built in 1830-31. Unsanitary conditions aroused persistent criticism from Dorothea Dix, pioneer in prison reform. All inmates were transferred to Joliet prior to 1860. During the Civil War many Confederate prisoners were incarcerated here and deaths averaged to ten a day.
  123. Illinois and Michigan Canal

    This historic artery of travel was commenced in 1836 and finished in 1848. By carrying pioneers and

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  124. Indian Creek Massacre

    On May 20, 1832, hostile Indians, mainly Potawatomi, massacred fifteen men, women and children of t

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  125. Governor Coles and Slavery

    Site of the courthouse where in 1824 political enemies convicted Governor Edward Coles of illegally freeing his slaves. 'To preserve to a continuous line of generations that liberty obtained by the valor of our forefathers, we must make provisions for the moral and intellectual improvement of those who are to follow.'
  126. Haskell Playhouse

    This unique Queen Anne style playhouse was built in 1885 for five year old Lucy J. Haskell, daughter of Dr. William A. and Florence Hayner Haskell. It is believed Lucy's grandfather, John E. Hayner, commissioned prominent local architect, Lucas J. Pfeiffenberger, to design the playhouse. In 1889, at age nine, Lucy died of diphtheria. After Florence Haskell's death in 1932, the Haskell family gave the estate to the City of Alton for educational and recreational purposes. The playhouse was to be retained in memory of Lucy J. Haskell. Designated a National Register Historic Landmark in 1974.
  127. John Mason Peck

    On this site in 1831, John Mason Peck (1789-1858), pioneer Baptist preacher, author, and educator, established the school which became Shurtleff College. In 1817, Peck had left his home in New England with a vision "to bring the lamp of learning and the light of the gospel" into the undeveloped West. He, his wife Sally, and three children endured an arduous four month trip in a small one-horse wagon, setting in Rock Spring, near O'Fallon, Illinois.

    There, in 1827, Peck founded Rock Spring Seminary, the first institution of its kind in the State of Illinois. In 1831, the seminary was moved to the growing city of Alton, where, in 1836, the name was changed to Shurtleff College, recognizing the gift of $10,000 from Dr. Benjamin Shurtleff of Boston.

    John Mason Peck is well described as a missionary and a teacher, an author and an editor, a geographer and a cartographer, and a promoter of churches, schools, and western settlement. For thirty years, he was undoubtedly one of the strongest advocates of education and righteousness in the entire Mississippi Valley. He traveled hundreds of miles by horseback or wagon, often under most difficult circumstances, while his wife and children bore his long absences with fortitude.

    Peck was one of the foremost ministerial opponents of slavery in Illinois and provided great support to Governor Edward Coles' successful anti-slavery effort in 1824. In 1851, he was honored with a Doctor of Divinity degree from Harvard University. He died on March 16, 1858, and is buried in Bellefontaine Cemetery in St. Louis.
  128. Leclaire, Illinois

    Social visionary N. O. Nelson founded the village of Leclaire in 1890, naming it after Edme Jean Leclaire, who inaugurated profit sharing in France. In contrast to unsanitary urban tenement districts, Leclaire was a model cooperative village offering affordable homes, a healthful environment, free education, many opportunities for recreation and self-improvement, and pleasant working conditions at the N. O. Nelson Manufacturing Company. To support his commitment to the "Golden Rule," Nelson implemented profit-sharing and employee benefits. During the Great Depression, the City of Edwardsville annexed the Village. Leclaire was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.
  129. Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Meriwether Lewis and William Clark originally planned to camp west of the Mississippi River during the winter of 1803-04. Carlos Dehault Delassus, the Spanish commandant at St. Louis, however, had not received formal notification from his government of the Louisiana Purchase and would not permit the expedition to cross the river. Thus in the middle of December, 1803, Clark led about twenty-five men to the winter camp on the American side at the mouth of the Wood River, then 1.25 miles southwest of this site.

    At Camp River Dubois Lewis and Clark gathered supplies, compiled information and trained their men. Originally there were nine Kentuckians, fourteen soldiers, two French watermen, one hunter- interpreter and Clark's Negro servant at the camp. They were energetic, healthy individualists who did not accept discipline willingly. During the winter Lewis reprimanded several men for refusing to obey the orders of their officers, failing to perform sentry duty and making "hunting of other business a pretext to cover their design of visiting a neighbouring whiskey shop...."

    Additional recruits enlisted for the first part of the trip Through hostile Indian country and in the spring three boats loaded with provisions, ammunition and merchandise were prepared for the long journey from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean and back. On May 14, 1804, Clark and about forty-five men "set out at 4 o'clock P.M., in the presence of many of the neighbouring inhabitants, and proceeded on under a gentle breeze up the Missouri."
  130. Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Alton

    The seventh and last debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas of the 1858 US Senatorial Campaign, was held at this site on October 15. A crowd estimated at between five and ten thousand people gathered in front of the old City Hall to hear the two candidates. The debates received National Attention, with Lincoln campaigning on an antislavery platform and Douglas on one of States' Rights. Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate seat, but, two years later, in 1860, was defeated by Lincoln for the Presidency.
  131. Abraham Lincoln

    Was stationed here during the Black Hawk War in 1832, as captain of volunteers. On April 21, 1832,

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  132. Six Mile Prairie

    Six Mile Prairie, located in the American Bottom six miles from St. Louis, was first settled in the 1830's by American farm families who migrated from the Upland south. With their crude farm implements, these pioneers broke through the tough prairie sod to grow crops in this rich bottomland, once called the "Garden Spot of the State." The increase in farm trade and stage coach traffic required improved access between Six Mile Prairie and St. Louis. In 1849 a plank road was constructed of 12 foot oak logs split and laid face up on stringers. This later became an extension of the National Road.
  133. George Rogers Clark Campsite (1st)

    Lt. Col. George Rogers Clark and his troop of 170 volunteers, principally Virginians, camped near this site, called Indian Point, on June 30, 1778. They were marching from Fort Massac to attack the British post at Kaskaskia. This was the first of five campsites on that march. Clark's men would take the post at Kaskaskia and, later, the British fort at Vincennes, Indiana. This work helped secure the Illinois Territory for the United States during the Revolutionary War.
  134. Illinois in the American Revolution

    George Rogers Clark arrived at Fort Massac on June 30, 1778, with about 175 men, under orders from Virginia to capture the British outposts in Illinois. British failure to regarrison the old French Fort here enabled Clark to enter the Illinois country without opposition. The British at Kaskaskia expected an attack from the Mississippi River. By marching overland Clark surprised them. He arrived at Kaskaskia on the night of July 4-5, and quickly secured the fort without resistance.
  135. Welcome to Illinois

    In 1673 the areas of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers were explored by Frenchman Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette. Their voyages resulted in French claims on the area until 1763 when, by the Treaty of Paris, France ceded the land to Great Britain. During the Revolution the Illinois Territory was won for the Commonwealth of Virginia by George Rogers Clark and his army. In 1784 it became part of the Northwest Territory and on December 3, 1818 Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. US Route 45 enters Illinois at Brookport proceeding north past the site of Fort Massac, built by the French in 1757, rebuilt by Americans in 1794. It continues north and east through Harrisburg and through the oil fields of Wayne and Clay Counties. Near Mattoon the Wisconsin glacier stopped its southern movement. Route 45 bisects the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana, site of the University of Illinois. Kankakee lies along the route and was the site of early French-Canadian migration. North of Kankakee US 45 passes east of the Jolliet Arsenal which has supplied munitions to the military since 1941. The route skirts Chicago passing through its western suburbs. Route 45 eventually exits Illinois east of Antioch. Along its approximate 230 mile journey through Illinois, Route 45 passes through twenty of the state's 102 counties and eight county seats. Geographically the route begins on a plane roughly equal to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina and ends on a plane north of New York City.
  136. Benjaminville Friends Meeting House

    Benjaminville was founded in the 1850's by Quaker farmers looking for rich prairie soil on which to grow their wheat. The Friends Meeting House, built in 1874, has changed little since then. The adjacent burial ground is divided into two sections: one for Quakers and a second for non-Quakers. When the expected Lake Erie Railroad went elsewhere, the town eventually died. The meeting house and burial ground are all that remain of Benjaminville. The site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984.
  137. Bloomington-Normal, Illinois

    The first settlement in this area in 1822 was called Keg Grove. By the time a post office was established in 1829 the settlement was known as Blooming Grove. McClean County was organized the following year and Bloomington, which was laid out in 1831 just north of Blooming Grove on 22.5 acres of land donated by James Allin, was selected as county seat. It was incorporated as a town in 1843 and a city in 1850. In 1853 Illinois Wesleyan University was chartered here and in 1857 Normal University, first state-supported school of higher education in Illinois, was established in North Bloomington which soon changed its name to Normal. The State Republican Party was formally organized in Bloomington in 1856 at a convention that Abraham Lincoln delivered his 'Lost Speech,' so called because no record of it was kept. Several of Lincoln's close associates were local residents, including Jesse Fell, credited with the founding of Normal, Leonard Swett, lawyer and campaigner for Lincoln, and David Davis, appointed to the United States Supreme Court by Lincoln (1862-1877) and later United States Senator. Other distinguished residents include Governors John M. Hamilton and Joseph Fifer; Adlai Stevenson I, Vice-President under Cleveland; and Adlai Stevenson II, Governor, twice presidential candidate, and United Nations Ambassador.
  138. David Davis Mansion

    This Victorian mansion was the home of Judge David Davis, an associate of Abraham Lincoln's. Construction began in 1870 and was completed in 1872. The house is built of yellow hard-burned face brick with stone quoins in the corners. It is 64 feet wide, extends 88 feet back, and has a tower that rises 50 feet above the ground. The lavish interior includes eight marble fireplaces. Davis was appointed by President Lincoln to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1862 and became a United States Senator in 1877. He returned to Illinois in 1883 and lived here again until his death in 1886.
  139. Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois

    The fertile prairies of Illinois attracted the attention of French trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763 when he surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris.

    During the American Revolution, George Rogers Clark scored a bloodless victory when he captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia and Illinois became a county of Virginia. This area was ceded to the United States in 1784, and became in turn a part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois Territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the 21st state.

    A short distance above Hamilton the lower rapids of the Mississippi River obstructed steamboat navigation. In 1820 the steamboat Western Engineer ascended to the foot of the rapids and three years later, the Virginia churned through the swift, shallow water.

    In the late 1830's, Lieutenant Robert E. Lee supervised drilling and blasting to widen and deepen +the river channel. When this project proved too costly and ineffective, an independent canal around the western side of the rapids was started in 1866.

    Between the Mississippi and the Illinois Rivers, Highway 136 cuts through the military tract, an area used as “Bounty Land” for veterans of the War of 1812; north of Warsaw, site of Fort Edwards (1814), south of Nauvoo, Mormon City of the 1840's and south of Dickson Mounds, ancient Indian burial site near the Illinois River.
  140. Franklin Square Historic District

    Franklin Square contains the homes of former Vice President Adlai Stevenson I and Governor Joseph Fifer. Franklin Park, the centerpiece of the district, was the starting point for partisan torchlight parades in the late nineteenth century. The park, named for Mayor Franklin Price, was donated to the City in 1856 by William Flagg, David Davis and William Allin. Many of the houses on the square were designed by architects Arthur Moratz, George Miller and Arthur Pillsbury. The park and bordering houses were listed on the National Register in 1976 and designated a local Historic District in 1979.
  141. Home of Adlai E. Stevenson I

    This was the home of Adlai E. Stevenson I, Vice-President of the United States, 1893-1897. Stevenson was born in Kentucky in 1835 and came to Bloomington in 1852. He attended Illinois Wesleyan University in Bloomington and Centre College in Kentucky. He began to practice law in Metamora, Illinois in 1858 and returned to Bloomington in 1868. A lifelong Democrat, Stevenson was elected to Congress in 1874 and 1878. He served as First Assistant Postmaster General in President Grover Cleveland's first administration, 1885-1889, and Vice President in Cleveland's second administration, 1893-1897. Stevenson bought this house in 1889. He died in 1914.
  142. Home of Joseph W. Fifer

    This was the home of Joseph W. Fifer, Republican Governor of Illinois, 1889-1893. Fifer was born in Virginia in 1840 and came to Illinois in 1857. During the Civil War he served in the 33rd Illinois Infantry Regiment. He graduated from Illinois Wesleyan in Bloomington in 1868 and began to practice law the next year. After being corporation counsel of Bloomington for one year and State's Attorney of McLean County for eight years, he served two terms as State Senator. He moved to these premises in 1893, at the end of his term as Governor, and lived in this red brick house from its completion in 1896 to his death in 1938.
  143. Illinois Soldiers' and Sailors' Children School

    The Illinois Soldiers and Sailors' Children's School (ISSCS) was established in 1865 as the Illinois Soldier's Orphans' Home. Dedicated in 1869, it provided a home for children of the Civil War veterans who had been killed or wounded. In 1899, the state allowed the school to admit indigent children of any veterans. Between 1907 and 1925, indigent children of non-veterans were admitted. In 1931, the name was changed to ISSCS. The facility closed in 1979.In these grounds for 114 years, scores of caregivers and educators provided thousands of children with a homelike environment.
  144. Illinois U.S. Route 66 (site 1)

    In 1926, construction began on a 2,448-mile highway from Chicago to Santa Monica, California. Route 66 reflected the increased use of motorized vehicles. The road, which cut diagonally across Illinois, passed through Lexington. Sleek restaurants, service stations and motels were built specifically to accommodate travelers. The original two-lane, concrete highway - a section of which is located here - was replaced over a span of thirty years by the more modern interstate highway system. In Illinois, Interstate-55 closely parallels old Route 66.
  145. Matthew T. Scott

    Matthew T Scott made his fortune on the grand prairie in the 19th century by developing thousands of acres of farmland. He founded the town of Chenoa in 1855 as a center for his business activities. Although Scott bought and sold over 45,000 acres of Illinois farmland, the development of his personal holdings of 5,000 acres in Livingston and McLean counties was his main interest. To produce maximum yields, Scott had his land drained with pipe tile and 250 miles of ditching. The productivity of his land was a tribute to Scott's planning and ingenuity. Scott's home, constructed in 1855 and enlarged in 1863, was restored in 1983 by his great niece, Elizabeth Stevenson Ives.
  146. Site of the Grand Village of the Kickapoo

    By the late 1700’s, the Kickapoo people had established a major settlement here, close to fertile fields, abundant game and timber, and important trade routes. Opposed to American expansion, these Native Americans allied with the British during the War of 1812. The village burning and crop destroying strategies of the American frontier militia forced the Kickapoo from their homes. This village and a nearby stockade were destroyed during that war. Many Kickapoo remained in Central Illinois until 1832 when they were forcibly removed by federal legislation. Today the Kickapoo live in Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
  147. Dr. Benjamin Franklin Stephenson, 1823-1871

    Founder of the Grand Army of the Republic, Menard County resident, Rush Medical College graduate 1850, surgeon 14th Illinois Volunteers 1861-1864, he originated the G.A.R. name, ritual, constitution of Post No. 1, Decatur, April 6, 1866, called first national G.A.R. convention and was its first adjutant general.
  148. Robert B. Latham Home

    On this site stood the home of Robert B. Latham who joined John D. Gillett and Virgil Hickox to fou

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  149. Long Nine Banquet Site

    In this structure, built about 1832, residents of the Athens area held a banquet on August 3, 1837, for the "Long Nine" - Abraham Lincoln and the other State legislators from Sangamon County. The men, whose height totaled fifty-four feet, were honored for their success in the tenth General Assembly in changing the State Capitol from Vandalia to Springfield. State offices were moved in 1839. At the Athens banquet Lincoln gave a toast: "Sangamon County will ever be true to her best interests and never more so than in reciprocating the good feelings of the citizens of Athens and neighborhood."
  150. Mentor Graham, 1800-1886: Teacher of Abraham Lincoln

    "I think I may say that he was my scholar and I was his teacher." At New Salem, Lincoln read Graham's books and in 1833 studied grammar and surveying. Teacher in Kentucky and Illinois more than 50 years, Graham died in South Dakota. In 1933 his remains were removed here.
  151. Bellefontaine

    Bellefontaine was one of the first settlements made by Americans in what is now Illinois. The earliest settlers included families of Revolutionary War veterans who had served with George Rogers Clark. Captain James Moore brought a band of pioneers from Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1781-1782. The settlement took its name from a nearby spring the French called 'La Belle Fontaine' (beautiful spring). By the 1800's it was the third largest community in the Illinois Territory.
  152. Holy Cross Lutheran Church of Wartburg

    The church was organized in 1841 by Pastor G. A. Schieferdecker and settlers from Saxony, Thuringia, and Westfalia, Germany. The site was donated in 1849 by Johann Christian and Katherine Just. The present church was erected in 1863, and the tower was re-built in 1913. English services were introduced in 1926 but did not predominate until 1946. Monthly German services were discontinued in 1967. The congregation also operated a Christian day school here from 1841 until 1960. Holy Cross is considered the mother church for several surrounding congregations.
  153. Maeystown

    Maeystown, where three streams descend the bluff, was founded by Jacob Maeys in 1852. The original settlers were German members of the Forty-Eighter Movement. The village is unique in manner with structures integrated into the landscape. The original stone church held services intermittently in German until 1943. Sixty significant buildings still exist, including Maeys' log house, the original church, the stone bridge, Zeitinger's Mill, and various outbuildings, barns and smokehouses made of limestone, brick, and wood. These buildings built in the mid to late 1800's form this quaint little village. Maeystown was designated as an Historic District in 1978.
  154. Barton Warren Stone (1772-1844)

    A leading figure of the 19th-century "Stone-Campbell" Restoration movement, Barton Warren Stone owned and lived on this farm from 1838 to 1844. Stone advocated the unity of all Christians, served as an educator and church planter, and published The Christian Messenger, a leading journal of its day. Seeking a location free of slavery, in 1834 he moved from Kentucky to Jacksonville where he founded Central Christian Church.

    Many Christian churches have their origin in the Stone-Campbell movement. Stone died in Hannibal, Missouri, in 1844, and was buried on this farm. In 1847, his body was moved to the Cane Ridge church cemetery near Paris, Kentucky.
  155. Big Eli Wheel No. 17

    "I have discovered the machine I want to design and build, a portable 'Ferris Wheel'". W.E. Sullivan, 1893.

    A young man's dream became reality when W. E. Sullivan, of Roodhouse, Illinois, designed and built a small, portable, revolving wheel, patterned after the 'Ferris Wheel' at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. He called his invention, "Big Eli."

    On May 23, 1900, in the square of downtown Jacksonville, "Big Eli"a 45' high wheel made of twelve structural steel spokes with carriage seats at their extremities, and supported by a steel axle, offered rides to all who dared to revolve in the bridge-like contraption. It grossed $5.56 that day.

    "Big Eli No, 17" was constructed in 1907 and was the 17th "wheel" built by Mr. Sullivan's manufacturing concern, Eli Bridge Company.

    "Big Eli No, 17" thrilled crowds at amusement parks in Duluth, MN; Leavenworth, KS; San Antonio, TX; Guaymas, Mexico; and, Miami, FL. In 1957, No, 17 returned home to the Eli Bridge Company for renovation. Originally built with 10 seats, No. 17 was converted to a "12 seater" and sold to the Jacksonville Rotary Club. Rotary installed No. 17 in Nichols Park and operated it there until increased insurance costs forced its closure in 1985.

    In 1986, the Rotary Club donated the "Big Eli No. 17" to the City of Jacksonville. With the assistance of Eli Bridge Company, and private donations, the structure was renovated and re-erected at its present site.

    Big Eli No. 1 stands in the front yard of the Eli Bridge Company.
  156. College Building

    On this site stood the College Building, built in 1832. With a capacity of over 100, the main four-story brick structure, 100 by 40 feet, served as a dormitory and dining room. The north wing housed President Edward Beecher and family, the south wing Professor Julian Sturtevant and family. Fire destroyed the main building and the north wing on December 29, 1852. The south wing was razed in 1954. From 1839-1862, nine editions of Mitchell's Geography contained illustrations of the building, Harvard being the only other college so illustrated.
  157. Farmers State Bank and Trust Company, The

    The site of the Farmers State Bank and Trust Company Building, formerly known as the Ayers National Bank Building, has been associated with banking longer than any other site in the State of Illinois and possibly the entire Old Northwest.

    By 1832, David Ball Ayers, with the help of his Philadelphia connections, was extending credit from this site to the residents of Morgan County. This building, which opened in 1913, housed the Ayers National Bank until the bank's failure in 1932. The building was later purchased by the Farmers State Bank and Trust Company.
  158. First Illinois State Hospital for the Insane

    Miss Dorothea Dix in her "memorial to the Senate and House of the Representatives of Illinois" urged their serious consideration of the afflicted condition of an increasing class of insane sufferers, whose healthful exercise of their intellectual faculties were withdrawn, incapable of self-government and self care. As a result the Assembly passed a law in 1847 stating "there shall be established, within four miles of the town of Jacksonville, county of Morgan, an institution to be known as the Illinois State Hospital for the Insane." Joseph Morton, James Dunlap, John J. Hardin, John Henry, Samuel D. Lockwood, William G. Thomas, Bezaleel Gillett, Nathaniel English and Owen M. Long constituted a body corporate as trustees. The building, under Superintendent Dr. James M. Higgins, was opened to accept the first patient, Sophronia McElhiney, McLean County, 3 November, 1851.

    The first deceased patient buried on this site, 13 February, 1852, was Martha Fisher, Morgan County. This Immanuel North Cemetery has 234 recorded burials from 78 counties, 1852-1879 as copied form an old cemetery book uncovered in 1979 at the old administration building. The deceased hereon represent a cross section of various life-styles, friendships, occupations, religions, races and creeds from families of many nationalities and origins.
  159. Historic Meredosia

    Legend has it that the name "Meredosia" comes from the French word for lake, "mere" and the name of the first white man to live in the area, a French priest named Antoine D'Osia. Another legend is that the willows along the lake shore were called "osiers" by the French or "Lake of the Willows." 

    The Illinois River made the village an important commercial center. Early transportation was by means of canoe or keel boat. Steamboats began coming to Meredosia in 1826 and were an important factor in organizing the village in 1832. Access to the ports of the world made the Kappal Brothers Fur Company the Midwest's second largest with over one-half million dollars in furs shipped to Russia and England annually. The Kappal buildings are still in use in the downtown section.

    The Skinner Bandstand located in Boyd Park memorializes Meredosia's most famous son. Frank Skinner, famous as a composer, arranger, and director of musical scores for over 500 motion pictures, played and directed at this bandstand regularly in his youth in the 1910's.

    The first steam locomotive west of the Allegheny Mountains was built in Meredosia. The "Northern Cross", which became the mighty Wabash Railroad, began on November 8, 1838 when an experimental steam locomotive, the "Rogers", took its initial journey. "Shellers" worked the river daily supplying their catch to three local button factories. The Wilbur E. Boyd Button Factory was the last independent "pearl" button factory in the U.S., ceasing operations in 1948.
  160. Illinois College

    Founded in 1829 by Presbyterian and Congregational ministers, it was the first college in Illinois to graduate a class. The first graduate was Richard Yates, Civil War Governor. Alma mater of William Jennings Bryan, '81. Beecher Hall, the State's oldest college building, is on the campus one-half mile north.
  161. Stephen Arnold Douglas

    Stephen A. Douglas was born in Brandon, Vermont, in 1813. He attended schools there and in New York State. In 1833 he settled in Winchester, Illinois, five miles southwest, where he taught school. In 1834 he moved to Jacksonville, eight miles northeast of here, and began to practice law. He soon became a leader of the Democratic Party in Illinois. He was elected Representative to the State Legislature in 1836, appointed Illinois Secretary of State in 1840, and elected Judge of the State Supreme Court in 1841.

    After moving to Quincy, Douglas served as a representative in Congress from 1843 to 1847. He changed his residence to Chicago in 1847 and served in the United States Senate from 1847 until his death in 1861.

    As an expansionist, Douglas favored acquisition of Oregon to 54 40' north latitude, annexation of Texas, and Federal grants for constructing a transcontinental railroad. The annexation of Texas led to the Mexican War and American acquisition of new western lands. The bills to organize this area into territories were included in the Compromise of 1850. Embodied in these bills and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which Douglas introduced in 1854, was the doctrine of "Popular Sovereignty" -the idea that the people in each territory could decide the issue of slavery for themselves.

    In the debates of the 1858 Senatorial campaign, Abraham Lincoln asked Douglas to reconcile "Popular Sovereignty" and the Supreme Court decision that slavery could not be barred from the territories. In reply Douglas advanced the Freeport Doctrine: That slavery could be excluded by local legislation. Douglas kept the Senate seat but lost southern support for his presidential candidacy in 1860.
  162. Boles Trail, The

    In 1825 Oliver W. Kellogg blazed a trail from Peoria to Galena which passed east of this site. On a spring day in the following year John Boles marked a shorter route near this point. The news of the Boles Trail spread and it became a heavily traveled route for the next three years.
  163. Buffalo Grove

    The Indians called this area Nanusha (buffalo). The first settlers arrived here in 1829 and six years later a village, St. Marion, was laid out. About 1840 the name was changed to Buffalo Grove and the village prospered until 1855 when the railroad steamed through Polo. Naturalist John Burroughs taught here in 1856-1857.
  164. Buffalo Grove Lime Kiln

    This free-standing, perpetual-burning lime kiln was used to produce lime mortar, a product widely utilized by the building industry. The area was known as Buffalo Grove after a thriving early settlement along the Galena Trail. The region retained the name even though the community had relocated in 1855 and was renamed Polo. Mortar was made by using ropes and pulleys to raise baskets of quarried limestone to the top of the kiln where the rocks were dropped inside. To create the intense heat needed to change the rock into fine, white-powdered lime, workers fed wood into the draft shaft through the two fireboxes located on opposite sides of the kiln. The powdered lime fell into a chamber at the bottom of the kiln, where it was shoveled out and stored in barrels in the attached lime house. The ashes fell into ash pits located under each firebox. The kiln sits on the quarry floor in close proximity to the resources need for lime production. The adjacent bluffs provided the raw material and the nearby grove of trees supplied the fuel. The Polo Historical Society purchased the site in 1985 and restored the kiln to functional condition in 1993. The protective roof was not part of the original structure. The site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002.
  165. First Steel Plow, The

    In his blacksmith shop located on this lot, John Deere made the first successful steel plow in 1837. In contrast to previous models, Deere's plow, with its steel share and carefully shaped mold board, turned the sticky black earth polishing itself clean and thus helped open the vast rich prairies to agricultural development.
  166. Galena Road, The

    In the early 1830's pioneer traffic moving north from Peoria crowded primitive trails and forced a direct route to Galena. In 1833, Levi Warner's state survey marked the "Galena Road." It cut through this schoolyard. Private Abraham Lincoln passed this site June 13, 1832 in Captain Elijah Iles's Black Hawk War Company.
  167. Indian Ambush

    Early in the Black Hawk War Indians concealed near this spot in Buffalo Grove, May 19, 1832, killed William Durley, a member of a six man detail carrying dispatches from Colonel James M. Strode at Galena to General Henry Atkinson at Dixon's Ferry. Durley's body now rests beneath this memorial.
  168. Lincoln in Polo

    Abraham Lincoln was a guest in this house, August 15-17, 1856. His host was Zenas Aplington, founder of Polo. On Saturday, August 16, John D. Campbell and James W. Carpenter, who were law partners in Polo, joined Lincoln and Aplington in a drive by carriage to Oregon, Ogle County Seat. There Lincoln and "Long John" Wentworth, six-term Congressman and later Mayor of Chicago, were among the several speakers at a political rally for John C. Fremont, first Republican Presidential candidate.
  169. Mount Morris College

    Rock River Seminary, the first institution of higher education in Northern Illinois, was established by the Methodist Church in 1839. Because of financial difficulties it was forced to close in 1879. The Church of the Brethren then purchased the campus and established Mount Morris Seminary and Collegiate Institute. In 1884 the name was changed to Mount Morris College. This building, "Old Sandstone," was reconstructed in 1912, after the original "Old Sandstone," built in the 1850's, was partially destroyed by fire. Mount Morris College closed in 1932.
  170. Stillman's Defeat

    Here, on May 14, 1832, the first engagement of the Black Hawk War took place, when 275 Illinois militiamen under Maj. Isaiah Stillman were put to flight by Black Hawk and his warriors. So thoroughly demoralized were the volunteers that a new army had to be called into the field.
  171. Jubilee College

    Jubilee College, two miles to the north, was established by Philander Chase, first Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Illinois, as one of the State's early institutions of higher learning. First students were received in 1840, and the school continued to operate until 1868. Jubilee College is now a State Park.
  172. Peoria, Illinois

    The city of Peoria was named for the Peoria tribe of the Iliniwek Indian Confederacy who once lived here. It was in 1673 that Jacques Marquette and the explorer Louis Jolliet traveled through the widened portion of the Illinois River know as Lake Peoria, on which the city is situated. Robert Cavalier, Sieur De La Salle, built Fort Creve Coeur on the bluffs across the river from the present Peoria site in 1680, assisted by Henri Tonti. Because of Indian attacks, the Fort was abandoned later that year. In 1691, Tonti returned to the area and along with Francois De La Forest built Fort St. Louis on the banks where the river narrows, just south of Lake Peoria.

    Militia units from Illinois and Missouri erected Fort Clark in 1813, in the area that is now downtown Peoria. In 1825 the city was named as the seat of the newly created Peoria County. Peoria was surveyed and laid out in 1826 by William S. Hamilton, son of Alexander Hamilton. It was incorporated as a town in 1837 and as a city in 1844. At the Peoria courthouse on October 16, 1854, Abraham Lincoln delivered one of his first speeches denouncing slavery. His remarks were a reply to Stephen A. Douglas, who had spoken on behalf of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

    The city's economy is broadly based in agri-business, manufacturing, distribution, and services. Heavy construction equipment, wire and wire products, medical services and research, marketing, and communications are major industries. Peoria is the home of Bradley University, a private co-educational institution founded in 1897 with a bequest from Lydia Moss Bradley.
  173. Pimiteoui

    Meaning "Fat Lake," Illinois Indian name for Peoria Lake. Here passed Jolliet and Marquette in 1673. Established near the lake were Ft. Crevecoeur, 1680; Ft. St. Louis, 1691-1692; Old Peoria's Fort and Village, 1730; Peorias, 1778; Ft. Clark, 1813; French Trading House "Opa Post," before 1818. Americans settled on the site of the City of Peoria in 1819.
  174. Illinois Soldiers and Sailors' Children School

    The Illinois Soldiers and Sailors' Children's School (ISSCS) was established in 1865 as the Illinoi

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  175. Earl C Smith -- Agricultural Leader

    This was the home of distinguished agricultural leader, Earl Clemmons Smith, born in Pike County February 19, 1881. In 1907, Smith began farming his grandmother Clemmons' land at this site. Smith became active in the early national farm bureau movement as farmers organized to strengthen their political clout. He was a charter member and president of the Pike County Farm Bureau. In 1928, Smith was elected president of the Illinois Agricultural Association -- Illinois Farm Bureau -- and served until 1945. Smith concurrently served as vice president of the American Farm Bureau Federation from 1936 to 1945.

    Nationally, Smith was active in the fight for "Parity for Agriculture," a goal that sought government action to help farmers achieve income levels comparable to those earned from 1910 - 1914, a time of profitability for farmers. Smith's work brought relief to farmers through US President Franklin D Roosevelt's first and second Agricultural Adjustment Acts.

    Under Smith's leadership, the organization established businesses to help serve farmers: Growmark and the FS member companies, Prairie Farms Dairy, and Country Insurance and Financial Services, which today are among the largest and most successful businesses in Illinois.

    In retirement, Smith continued to farm in Pike County. He died on June 30, 1961. Earl C. Smith was a clear voice and a steady leader for agriculture -- A pioneer who advanced the philosophy that farmers need to take action to protect their futures and cooperate with others to achieve success.
  176. Illinois

    The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of French trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763, when it was surrendered to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution, George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the commonwealth of Virginia, and Illinois became a county of Virginia. This area was ceded to the United States in 1874, and became in turn a part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state.

    The markers that designate US Highway 36 in Illinois as a 33D Division Memorial Highway were dedicated on Memorial Day 1963. The 33D Division was organized in August, 1917, from National Guard Units of the State of Illinois. It became famous in the Meuse-Argonne offensive and by November 11, 1918, was poised for a breakthrough on the Hindenburg Line. In World War II, the Division fought in the Pacific Area and liberated Baguio, the summer capital of the Philippines.

    US 36 passes through Pittsfield, where John Nicolay and John Hay, President Abraham Lincoln's private secretaries, formed their friendship. Stephen A. Douglas studied law and taught in Winchester, and held his first elective office in Jacksonville. Lincoln's Home, Tomb, and the Old State Capitol are in Springfield, and a courthouse where Lincoln practiced in Mount Pulaski.
  177. Mormontown Site

    On February 22, 1839, members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, refugees driven from Missouri under the "Extermination Order" of Governor Lilburn Boggs, settled on this site. The property was owned by Thomas Edwards, who later joined the church. Silas Smith, high priest in the church and uncle of Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith, was the leader of these Mormon refugees. The community grew to more than 300 members. Silas Smith died on September 13, 1839, at the age of 58 and was buried here near his home. Smith was succeeded by John Lawton and later by Harlow Redfield, who presided over the congregation until it disbanded in 1845.

    In October 1842, Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball preached at a church conference held here. The settlement, which later became known as Mormontown, extended on both sides of the road at this location. Cabins were built and wells dug. A schoolhouse and a church were erected on the south side of the road. The cemetery, which measured 60 by 80 feet, fell into disrepair in later years. Gravestones were bulldozed into a ditch and the graveyard plowed over. The church building was relocated to Pittsfield and used as a parish hall by St. Mary's Catholic Church. The pews and pulpit were moved to a church near Pleasant Hill.
  178. Welcome to Illinois

    In 1673 the areas of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers were explored by Frenchmen Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette. Their voyages resulted in French claims on the area until 1763 when, by the Treaty of Paris, France ceded the land to Great Britain. During the American Revolution, the Illinois Territory was won for the Commonwealth of Virginia by George Rogers Clark and his army. In 1784 it became part of the Northwest Territory and on December 3, 1818 Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state.

    US Route 54 enters Illinois east of Louisiana, Missouri and stretches northeast towards Pittsfield. The route in Illinois was dedicated as the 33rd Division Memorial Highway on Memorial Day 1963. The designation commemorates the WW I Division organized in 1917 from Illinois National Guard units. The Division played an important role in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. In WW II it was used in the Pacific in the Philippines.

    Route 54 ends its sixteen mile journey in Illinois four miles west of Pittsfield where it meets US Route 36. Pittsfield is the county seat of Pike County. John Nicolay, author of ten-volume biography of Lincoln, began his career in Pittsfield. He met John Hay there and formed a life-long friendship. Hay collaborated on the Lincoln biography and went on to a fruitful career as a diplomat. He was ambassador to great Britain and Secretary of State from 1898-1905.

    The "open door" policy with China and the Hay-Paunceforte Treaty were his major accomplishments.
  179. Greene Vardiman Black

    G.V. Black, Father of Modern Dentistry, was born in 1836 on a farm near Winchester, Illinois. He studied medicine and dentistry and in 1857 began his practice of dentistry in Winchester. After serving in the Civil War, he resumed his dental practice in Jacksonville. His home and last office stood on this site. Here he did extensive research, invented dental instruments, and wrote hundreds of papers and books. Many of his ideas on care and restoration of teeth became the accepted methods. Dr. Black taught operative dentistry and pathology at several dental schools. He moved to Chicago in 1897 to become Dean of the Northwestern University Dental School, serving until his death in 1915.
  180. Cantonment Wilkinson-Ville

    On the Ohio River three miles south of here Cantonment Wilkinson-Ville, named for Gen. James Wilkinson, was established by Lt. Col. David Strong in 1797 as a post of the United States Army. It was garrisoned until 1804. Here are buried Colonel Strong and scores of soldiers who died.
  181. Marine Ways, The

    During the Civil War the naval depot of the western river fleet was located at Mound City. Here the keels of three of the famous Eads ironclad gunboats were laid, and a large force of workmen were employed to keep the fleet in fighting trim. The marine ways, still in operation, are 400 yards south of here.
  182. Bellefontaine

    Bellefontaine was one of the first settlements made by Americans in what is now Illinois. The earli

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  183. American Bottom, The

    The American Bottom is that sixty mile long strip of lowland lying between the bluffs and the east bank of the Mississippi River. Its earliest recorded history is written in the annals of France, England, and Spain. In the wars, these nations fought against each other and against native Indian tribes for dominion of the New World.

    Following the discoveries of Jolliet and Marquette in 1673 and exploration of LaSalle in 1682, France claimed possession of the entire Mississippi Valley. Extending from the Appalachian Mountains in the East and the Spanish Empire in the West, here in the center of this vast expanse known as the Illinois Country, Louis XIV erected a fort and settlers from Canada and France established the village of Cahokia in 1699 and the villages of St. Philippe, Fort de Chartres, Prairie du Rocher, and Kaskaskia early in the eighteenth century.

    During England’s occupation of the Illinois Country, 1765-1778, she retained the American Bottom as the center of administration for the area renamed the Illinois Province of Quebec. Virginia, likewise, established the American Bottom as headquarters for her Illinois County, 1778-1781, when George Rogers Clark drove the British from the area.

    The American Bottom part of the Old Northwest Territory gained recognition under the government of the United States by being named the site of the first county established in Illinois in 1790, the capital of the Illinois Territory, 1809-1818, and the home of the first state capital.
  184. Chester-Kaskaskia, Illinois

    Shadrach Bond, first Governor of Illinois (1818-1822), is buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Chester. The first recorded settler in the area was John McFerron who purchased land in 1817 but Samuel Smith, who settled here in 1830, is considered the founder of Chester. Formerly known as Smith's Landing, the community was renamed after Chester, England. The town was a river port for the export of such local products as castor oil, flour, and meat during the mid-nineteenth century. It became the county seat in 1848 and was incorporated as a city in 1855.

    Kaskaskia, founded in 1703 as a Jesuit mission, became a prominent French village. During the French and Indian War (1754-1763) between France and Britain, Fort Kaskaskia was erected on the bluffs near the settlement. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Kaskaskia came under British control. On July 4, 1778 George Rogers Clark captured Kaskaskia settlement and the area became part of Virginia. Kaskaskia served as Illinois Territorial Capitol (1809-1818) and as the first state capitol (1818-1820). When the capitol was moved to Vandalia, Kaskaskia declined in importance. Mississippi floods from 1844 to 1910 gradually destroyed the old settlement, and the area is now Fort Kaskaskia State Park.

    Sites of interest include the Garrison Hill Cemetery containing a monument to the pioneers; the home of Pierre Menard, first Lieutenant Governor, which is preserved as a State Memorial; and the Kaskaskia State Memorial on Kaskaskia Island containing the "Liberty Bell of the West."
  185. Chester-Kaskaskia, Illinois

    Shadrach Bond, first Governor of Illinois (1818-1822), is buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Chester. The first recorded settler in the area was John McFerron who purchased land in 1817 but Samuel Smith, who settled here in 1830, is considered the founder of Chester. Formerly known as Smith's Landing, the community was renamed after Chester, England. The town was a river port for the export of such local products as castor oil, flour, and meat during the mid-nineteenth century. It became the county seat in 1848 and was incorporated as a city in 1855.

    Kaskaskia, founded in 1703 as a Jesuit mission, became a prominent French village. During the French and Indian War (1754-1763) between France and Britain, Fort Kaskaskia was erected on the bluffs near the settlement. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Kaskaskia came under British control. On July 4, 1778 George Rogers Clark captured Kaskaskia settlement and the area became part of Virginia. Kaskaskia served as Illinois Territorial Capitol (1809-1818) and as the first state capitol (1818-1820). When the capitol was moved to Vandalia, Kaskaskia declined in importance. Mississippi floods from 1844 to 1910 gradually destroyed the old settlement, and the area is now Fort Kaskaskia State Park.

    Sites of interest include the Garrison Hill Cemetery containing a monument to the pioneers; the home of Pierre Menard, first Lieutenant Governor, which is preserved as a State Memorial; and the Kaskaskia State Memorial on Kaskaskia Island containing the "Liberty Bell of the West."
  186. Chester-Kaskaskia, Illinois

    Shadrach Bond, first Governor of Illinois (1818-1822), is buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Chester. The first recorded settler in the area was John McFerron who purchased land in 1817 but Samuel Smith, who settled here in 1830, is considered the founder of Chester. Formerly known as Smith's Landing, the community was renamed after Chester, England. The town was a river port for the export of such local products as castor oil, flour, and meat during the mid-nineteenth century. It became the county seat in 1848 and was incorporated as a city in 1855.

    Kaskaskia, founded in 1703 as a Jesuit mission, became a prominent French village. During the French and Indian War (1754-1763) between France and Britain, Fort Kaskaskia was erected on the bluffs near the settlement. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Kaskaskia came under British control. On July 4, 1778 George Rogers Clark captured Kaskaskia settlement and the area became part of Virginia. Kaskaskia served as Illinois Territorial Capitol (1809-1818) and as the first state capitol (1818-1820). When the capitol was moved to Vandalia, Kaskaskia declined in importance. Mississippi floods from 1844 to 1910 gradually destroyed the old settlement, and the area is now Fort Kaskaskia State Park.

    Sites of interest include the Garrison Hill Cemetery containing a monument to the pioneers; the home of Pierre Menard, first Lieutenant Governor, which is preserved as a State Memorial; and the Kaskaskia State Memorial on Kaskaskia Island containing the "Liberty Bell of the West."
  187. Dr. George Fisher (Gravesite)

    George Fisher, early Illinois physician, served as sheriff of Randolph County, member of the first House of Representatives of Indiana Territory, Speaker of the House in the first and third Illinois Territorial Assemblies, 1812-1814, 1816-1818), and member of the first Illinois Constitutional Convention (1818). His body lies here.
  188. Dr. George Fisher (Ruma)

    Dr. George Fisher, Kaskaskia physician, lived on a farm eight miles west of here from 1806 until his death in 1820. 1801 first sheriff of Randolph County, 1805-1808 member of first and second General Assemblies on Indiana Territory, 1812-1816 speaker of house in first and third General Assemblies of Illinois Territory, 1818 member of first Constitutional Convention.
  189. Elias Kent Kane

    Elias Kent Kane, architect of the State's first constitution, was born in New York in 1794. Kane studied law and began his practice in Tennessee. In 1814, he moved to Kaskaskia, where he was appointed a judge of the Illinois territory. Active in politics, in 1818, Kane was a delegate to the first state constitutional convention. He dominated the convention, which framed a constitution that allowed the retention of slavery. Governor Shadrach Bond appointed Kane as the first Secretary of State. A Jacksonian Democrat, Kane was elected to the United States Senate in 1824, where he served until his death in 1835.
  190. Fort De Chartres-Prairie Du Rocher, Illinois

    The fertility of the Mississippi bottom lands in this area attracted settlers early in the eighteenth century. The territory was under French rule and in 1718 Pierre Duque, Sieur de Boisbriant, commandant of the Illinois country, was sent to erect a permanent military post. The First Fort de Chartres was completed in 1720. Built of wood and exposed to the Mississippi floods, the fort had to be rebuilt in 1727 and 1732. In 1753 construction of a new fort built of stone and farther inland begun under the direction of Francois Saucier. When it was completed in 1756 it was considered one of the finest forts in North America. The British gained control of the area in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris and in 1765 took possession of the fort which they renamed Fort Cavendish. They destroyed the fort in 1772 when the encroaching Mississippi waters necessitated its abandonment. It had served as the seat of civil and military government in the Illinois country for over half a century. The partially reconstructed fort is a state memorial west on Illinois I55. Prairie du Rocher, the small French village four miles east of the fort, was founded in 1722 by St. Therese Langlois, nephew of Boisbriant. The Prairie du Rocher Common (land used by all the villagers) was granted to the village by the territorial government in 1743 and was used until 1852. Prairie du Rocher, 'Field of the Rock,' remains a picturesque village where French Christmas and New Year's customs are still observed.
  191. George Rogers Clark Campsite (5th)

    In the third year of the American Revolutionary War, Lt. Col. George Rogers Clark and his army of 170 Virginians set out from Fort Massac (Metropolis) on their way to liberate the town of Kaskaskia from British control. On July 3, 1778, Clark's army crossed the old state road near Welge and established its fifth and final camp on the west side of St. Mary's River.

    On July 4, Clark's army marched to a staging point at Diamond Cross and later that evening attacked and secured Kaskaskia.
  192. Kaskaskia

    From 1703 until it was washed away by the Mississippi two centuries later, the ancient town of Kaskaskia - the second settlement in Illinois, the territorial capital and the first state capital - stood two miles southwest of here. Fort Kaskaskia State Park and the Menard Home are memorial to this once prominent village.
  193. Modoc Rock Shelter

    As early as 8000 B.C. prehistoric Indians were camping in the shelter of this great sandstone bluff. These nomadic people, who lived by hunting animals and gathering plants for food and fibers, came here regularly for more than 6000 years. Later Indian groups, who began to settle in villages, used the rock shelter occasionally when hunting. The pioneers and their descendants continued to make use of the shelter in historic times.
  194. Boles Trail, The

    In 1825 Oliver W. Kellogg blazed a trail from Peoria to Galena which passed east of this site. On a

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  195. Charter Oak School

    Charter Oak School is said to be the only octagonal one-room brick schoolhouse in Illinois. It was built in 1873, in accordance with a design suggested by Daniel Ling, a teacher of the Charter Oak School District. It served as a school until 1953. The octagonal shape utilizes daylight and offers wind resistance. The first school in the district was a log building, erected three years after the Illinois Free School Law was passed in 1845. This was succeeded in 1863 by a frame structure, in which Ling taught in 1872-1873.
  196. Lincoln and Douglas in Olney

    During the Presidential Campaign of 1856 Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas spoke at Olney at separate political rallies held the same day - Saturday, September 20. In the morning Douglas spoke in a grove near town at a Democratic rally for Buchanan and Breckinridge. In the afternoon Lincoln spoke at the courthouse at a Republican rally for Fremont and Dayton. The Republican speakers - Lincoln, Senator Lyman Trumbull, and Ebenezer Peck of Chicago - also attended the Democratic rally. On the previous day they had challenged the Democrats to a debate, but the Democrats were confident of victory and did not accept.
  197. First Steel Plow, The

    In his blacksmith shop located on this lot, John Deere made the first successful steel plow in 1837

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  198. Solar Power in Olney, Illinois

    In 1902, the first experimental Solar Power Plant was built in Olney, Illinois by H. E. Willsie and John Boyle, two American engineers. Their Solar Power Plant was based on an 1885 design developed by the French engineer Tellier. Between 1892 and 1908 Willsie and Boyle experimented with their low temperature Solar Plants that utilized 'hot boxes' to heat water. Their "hot box" Solar Power Plant was patented in 1903. The results were published on May 13th 1909 in the issue of Engineering News.
  199. Black Hawk War Campsite

    In 1832 when Black Hawk and his Sauk and Fox followers returned to Illinois, 1500 mounted volunteers advanced along the bank of the Rock River to capture them. 505 men under Colonel Zachary Taylor followed in supply boats and late at night on May 12, 1832 camped in this area.
  200. Lincoln in Polo

    Abraham Lincoln was a guest in this house, August 15-17, 1856. His host was Zenas Aplington, founde

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  201. Fort Armstrong

    Fort Armstrong was built in 1816-1817. Its riverside was protected by limestone bluffs and its other sides were formed in part by the rear walls of barracks and storehouses. Blockhouses, like the replica, stood at three corners. The pyramid of cannon balls to the southwest marks the site of the northeastern blockhouse. The fort was garrisoned by United States troops until May 4, 1836. It served as headquarters for the Sauk and Fox Indian Agent from 1836 to 1838 and as a military depot from 1840 to 1845. It was destroyed by fire in 1855.
  202. Hero Street U.S.A.

    Hero Street, U.S.A. received its name in 1968 to honor the fifty-seven servicemen from thirty-three families on this block-and-a-half who served in defense of America between 1941 and 1968. Six men died in World War II and two in the Korean Conflict. Some families sent as many as six or seven sons; some men served in both wars. At the date of the erection of this marker, over 110 men and women from this small area had served in the United States Armed Services, exemplifying American patriotism at its highest level.
  203. Carrier Mills Archaeological District

    This area of some 143 acres located approximately two miles south of Carrier Mills was inhabited by prehistoric people throughout three different archaeological periods. Until the turn of the century, the South Fork of the Saline River was a meandering stream with large area of swamps and shallow cypress lakes nearby. These areas were rich in plants and animals that prehistoric inhabitants sought for food. Therefore, the locality became a natural focal point for human settlement. In 1978 and 1979, archaeologists intensively investigated this area. Excellent preservation conditions permitted the recovery of many tools and animal and plant remains that have provided significant new insights into the prehistory of southern Illinois.

    Sporadic use of the area by small groups of hunters and gatherers can be dated to 8000 B.C., and the area was used more or less continuously until 1400 A.D. Settlement activity increased dramatically during the late Middle Archaic Period, 4500 to 3000 B.C., when the area was inhabited by larger groups with a more sedentary lifestyle. These occupations produced thick deposits containing many artifacts and burials. The area also saw heavy use during the Middle and Late Woodland periods, 200 B.C. to 900 A.D. The peoples of those times increasingly emphasized the collection and storage of plant foods and began to domesticate some native plants. The final prehistoric inhabitants were Mississippian Period Indians. (900 to 1400 A.D.), who lived in scattered farmsteads and cultivated corn and squash.
  204. Homestead of Judge Samuel Elder

    Here was located the home of Samuel Elder, cofounder of Elder-Redo now called Eldorado. Judge of the county court 1849-1856, school commissioner, collector, Internal Revenue, Justice of the Peace, and farmer. He and his son William together with Joseph and William Reed laid out the village of Eldorado, August 22, 1857.
  205. Ingersoll Law Office, 1855-1857

    Two hundred feet east of here was the Ingersoll law office. Ebon Clark Ingersoll and Robert Green Ingersoll, his younger brother, before they moved to Peoria, had a successful law practice in the Saline County Circuit Court which met in Raleigh, the first county seat of Saline County, 1847-1859.
  206. Zion Protestant Episcopal Church

    Founded by the Rt. Reverend Philander Chase, first bishop of Illinois, 1845. Restored and rededicat

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  207. Abraham Lincoln

    Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin County, Kentucky, February 12, 1809. He moved with his family to Indiana in 1816 and to Illinois in 1830. His first home in Illinois was eight miles southwest of Decatur. He later moved alone to New Salem and there he operated a general store and served as Postmaster and Deputy County Surveyor. He served as a Representative in the State Legislature, 1834-1842, and in 1837 was a leader in the effort to move the state government from Vandalia to Springfield. Springfield became the capitol in 1839. In 1836 Lincoln was admitted to the bar, and in 1837 he moved to Springfield and began his law practice. He argued cases in a number of circuit courts, especially those in counties in the Eighth Judicial Circuit. He spent much of his public life at the Old State Capitol in downtown Springfield. In 1842 he married Mary Todd and in 1844 purchased his home at Eighth and Jackson Streets in Springfield. As a Whig, Lincoln was elected a Representative to the United States Congress in 1846. As a Republican he opposed Stephen A. Douglas for the United States Senate in 1858, and the debates between the candidates made Lincoln nationally prominent though Douglas won the race. Lincoln was elected President of the United States in 1860, and the election of a Republican prompted the southern states to secede from the Union. Lincoln was inaugurated march 4, 1861, and the Civil War began April 12. The original aim of the north was restoration of the Union; after 1862, freeing the slaves became another objective. Lincoln was reelected in 1864. At his second inauguration in 1865 he pled for a conciliatory attitude toward the South. He pursued the war to a successful conclusion, capped by Lee's surrender to Grant on April 9, 1865. Five days later Lincoln was assassinated in Ford's Theatre in Washington. He is buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield.
  208. Abraham Lincoln and the Talisman

    Prior to the coming of the railroads, Springfield was handicapped by inadequate transportation facilities. Early in 1832, Vincent A. Bogue, Springfield businessman and promoter, planned to supply the Sangamon River region with steamboat service. He chartered the Talisman, a 150-ton upper cabin steamer 136 feet long with a 48 foot beam, and obtained cargo in Cincinnati. On February 5 the journey began down the Ohio River, up the Mississippi to St. Louis, on to the Illinois, up to Beardstown, and via the Sangamon to the Springfield area.

    Springfield citizens were enthusiastic and had raised funds to aid the project. At New Salem, Abraham Lincoln and others joined the axmen who were to clear the Sangamon of obstructions. The Talisman arrived at Beardstown March 9 and, after a 4-day delay due to ice, began the 100-mile trip up the Sangamon. When they arrived at Portland Landing, three fourths of a mile east of here, on March 24 crowds greeted them and continued the celebration in Springfield for several days. Rowan Herndon was hired as pilot and Lincoln as assistant pilot for the return trip to Beardstown. Since the Sangamon was falling rapidly, the steamboat had to be backed partway downstream and at New Salem a section of the dam was removed to float the boat across.

    When the boat reached Beardstown, Lincoln received $40 dollars for his services from March 13 to April 6 and walked back to New Salem. The Talisman venture was financially unsuccessful and hopes for a river port near Springfield were eventually abandoned.
  209. Camp Butler

    Camp Butler was established in 1861 as a Civil War training camp and mobilization center for Illinois recruits. Selected by state officials and Brigadier General, William T. Sherman and named for Illinois State Treasurer William Butler (1859-1863), Camp Butler was the second largest recruitment facility in Illinois after Camp Douglas in Chicago. By the end of the war in 1865 nearly 200,000 union soldiers passed through this camp.

    The camp later served as a prisoner of war (POW) facility for thousands of Confederate soldiers captured in battles along the Cumberland, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas Rivers, such as Fort Donelson and Fort Hindman (Arkansas Post). Living conditions within this camp, for both recruits and prisoners, were primitive at best.

    Disease was widespread within Camp Butler. Pneumonia, small pox, dysentery, and other illnesses claimed the lives of 639 and 866 Confederate soldiers, many of whom were buried within the confines of the camp. Included among the Confederates were soldiers from Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama. Today the Confederate graves are distinguishable by their pointed headstones.

    Although the camp was deactivated in 1866, the cemetery remains an active military burial site. In 2011 the National Cemetery occupied over 53 acres and is the final resting place for more than 20,000 U.S. veterans and eligible family members. Also interred here are POW soldiers from World War II, who remains were relocated from various camps and forts throughout the Midwest.
  210. Clayville

    This building, one of the first brick buildings in Sangamon County, was built in the spring of 1834 by John Broadwell. His father, Moses Broadwell, a native of Elizabethtown, New Jersey, came to Illinois in 1820. He and his son John built a brick kiln and ran a tannery where animal skins were cured at this spot. Several buildings were constructed about 1824; however, the present one is all that remains.

    Between the 1830's and the early 1850's a stage line ran between Springfield and Beardstown. Tradition indicates that eastern cattle buyers and cattle drovers heading for distant markets as well as teamsters hauling dry goods, liquor, groceries, hardware, and clothing between Beardstown on the Illinois River and Springfield traveled this route. Families of settlers spent the night here before seeking property for themselves. While the original inn burned in the late 1800's, the present brick building, notable in its time, was used to accommodate overflow crowds and it is possible that stage passengers, cattlemen, teamsters, and settlers shared experiences here.

    The Broadwell's named this area Clayville in honor of Henry Clay, the leading Whig politician and this property was the scene of Whig festivities and poll-raisings. On the 4th of July, 1842, many Whigs met here for a celebration including speeches, music, marching, dining, and drinking. With the coming of the railroad and the rerouting of commerce and travel, Clayville passed into history.
  211. Edwards Trace, The

    An important trail in the history of Illinois ran atop this ridge. Called the Edwards Trace, an early word for trail, its use reaches back to antiquity when herds of bison and other large mammals traveled along its path. For millennia, prehistoric people utilized the trail for seasonal migrations, trading, hunting, and waging war. As early as 1711, French priests and trappers began traveling along its path. This overland route offered an alternative to the waterways.

    From Kaskaskia in the south, the trace passed up through Cahokia and the Edwardsville area and by this point on its way to the Illinois River near present-day Peoria. During the War of 1812, Territorial Governor Ninian Edwards, who later became the state's third governor, led a contingent of 350 rangers to Peoria along its pathway for action against the Kickapoo. As a result, it became known as the Edwards Trace.

    For early Illinois inhabitants, this was the main land route between southern Illinois and points north. Along its course came many of the pioneers who settled the Sangamon Valley. After Illinois became a state in 1818, this road carried heavy traffic north and south, including a variety of goods and commodities. As a result a depressed path developed, a remnant of which can be seen 25 yards west of this marker.
  212. Marine Ways, The

    During the Civil War the naval depot of the western river fleet was located at Mound City. Here the

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  213. McHenry County's First Courthouse

    McHenry County's first commissioners met in this building on August 5th, 1840. The original structure was built on the court street side of the public square, now Veterans Park, as McHenry County's first courthouse.

    McHenry County split from Cook County in 1836, comprising Lake and McHenry counties. The village of McHenry was the centrally-located county seat. Lake and McHenry counties divided in 1839. In 1843, the county seat was relocated to Centerville, now Woodstock.

    In 1844, the government auctioned the courthouse to Horace Long, who moved it to this location on Riverside Drive, originally Water Street, for use as a tavern and hotel.
  214. General John A. McClernand, 1812-1900

    On this site stood the residence of John A. Mcclernand. He was born in Breckinridge County, Kentucky but moved with his family to Shawneetown, Illinois in 1816. He studied law and in 1832 was admitted to the bar. He served in the Illinois General Assembly, 1836-1838, 1840-1843 and in Congress, 1843-1851, 1859-1861. At the outbreak of the Civil War he resigned to accept a commission as a Brigadier General in the Union Army. In 1862 he was promoted to Major General. After the war he resumed the practice of Law. He was Circuit Judge of the Sangamon District of Illinois from 1870-1873 and later chaired the 1876 Democratic National Convention. He is buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery, here.
  215. Hutchinson Cemetery & Springfield High School

    On this site in 1843, John Hutchinson, undertaker, cabinetmaker and businessman, established the first private burial ground in Springfield. Located on the western edge of the then-newly-incorporated city, Hutchinson Cemetery operated for several decades and received the remains of more than 700 of Springfield's earliest and most respected citizens, including land developer Pascal P. Enos, Rev. Charles Dresser, and early Springfield merchant Robert Irwin. Edward Baker"Eddie" Lincoln, the three year old son of Abraham and Mary Lincoln was buried here in February 1850, as were many other Springfield children who succumbed to infections and diseases no longer considered life threatening by modern medical standards. The cemetery continued to receive burials through the Civil War, but in 1874 a city ordinance closed Hutchinson. Eventually most of the bodies were exhumed and removed to Oak Ridge Cemetery on Springfield's north side.

    The Springfield School District acquired the former cemetery lot and constructed the present and fourth Springfield High School here in 1917. Build in the Beaux Arts style, the school was considered at the time the most modern public educational facility in the state. Most of the original exterior architectural details and mosaics remain intact. Notable graduates include poet Vachel Lindsay; Homer translator Robert Fitzgerald; educator Susan Wilcox; scientist and presidential advisor Dr. J. Lee Westrate; World Bank director E. Patrick Coady; and Medal of Honor winner Brigadier General Edward J. McClernand.
  216. Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices

    This portion of the Tinsley Building, a merchant block constructed in 1840-1841, is the only surviving structure in which Abraham Lincoln maintained a law office. Intended originally for commercial use, much of the building was rented for other purposes. A portion of the first floor was occupied by Springfield's post office, while attorneys rented third-floor offices. Among them was Lincoln, who had offices here with partners Stephen T. Logan (1843-1844) and William H. Herndon (1844-ca. 1850). Here Lincoln also argued cases before the federal courts that met from 1841 to 1855 in a second-floor courtroom.
  217. Dr. George Fisher (Gravesite)

    George Fisher, early Illinois physician, served as sheriff of Randolph County, member of the first

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  218. Old State Capitol

    The Old State Capitol was the fifth statehouse in Illinois history. The building served as the capitol from 1839 to 1876. Its cornerstone was laid July 4, 1837, five months after the General Assembly passed legislation moving the state capitol from Vandalia to Springfield. The structure is a fine example of the then-popular Greek Revival style.

    During the 1840's and 1850's the building dominated the public square and became a center of political and cultural life in Springfield. Dances, benefit dinners, auctions, and other civic affairs took place in its rooms. The legislative chambers, rotunda, and front steps were frequently the scene of political rallies and conventions. Concerts, lectures, and other cultural programs often accompanied legislative sessions, during which citizens from throughout Illinois made visits to the capital city.

    Abraham Lincoln frequented the building from 1839 until he departed in 1861 to assume the presidency. As a lawyer, he practiced before the Illinois Supreme Court and made frequent use of the buildings two libraries. Representatives' Hall was the scene of several important Lincoln speeches, including the 1858 'House Divided' address, which opened his unsuccessful campaign for the U.S. Senate against Stephen A. Douglas. The 'Governor's Room' served as Lincoln's informal campaign headquarters during the 1860 presidential election. In 1865 citizens paid the assassinated President their last respects in Representatives' Hall before final services at Oak Ridge Cemetery.

    In 1876, a new statehouse replaced the Old State Capitol, and the building became the Sangamon County Courthouse. Legislation passed in 1961 led to the state's purchase and reconstruction of the building to its Lincoln-era appearance. The tree-year project was completed in 1969, when the building was opened to the public as a state historic site.
  219. Peter Cartwright

    Near Pleasant Plains the famous Methodist circuit rider, Peter Cartwright, made his home from 1824 until death in 1872. His powerful preaching led many thousands into the church, and made him a dominant figure in the religious life of Illinois for half a century.
  220. Reservoir Park and Lanphier High School

    The site where Lanphier High School now stands was once known as Reservoir Park. Constructed in the 1870s, Reservoir Park was a popular recreation spot that integrated a lagoon and huge reservoir, which served as the City of Springfield's water supply. In 1935, the Springfield School District purchased the property and, with funding from the WPA, removed the reservoir's walls and filled in the lagoon.

    The District built Lanphier High School on this site in 1936. The school featured the latest in educational facilities and state-of-the-art equipment. Students represented a variety of ethnic groups, families who came to Springfield to work on the railroads, in nearby coal mines, and in local industries such as Pillsbury Mills, the Illinois Watch Factory, and Sangamo Electric Company.

    Robert C. Lanphier, for which the School is named, was founder and president of Sangamo Electric Company, a factory located immediately to the west of the School. Sangamo produced electric meters and sonar equipment, and was one of the city's major employers for more than 50 years. Lanphier's grandfather, Charles Lanphier, was publisher of the Illinois State Register, as well as a political foe of Abraham Lincoln.

    Located directly to the east of the high school is Memorial Field, the City's football and track arena, and Springfield's public baseball stadium, named for Lanphier High graduate and baseball Hall of Famer Robin Roberts.
  221. Abraham Lincoln's Teacher

    Azel Waters Dorsey, 1784-1858, teacher of Abraham Lincoln, is buried on the King farm one mile south of Huntsville. Dorsey taught a "blab School" in Spencer County, Indiana, which young Lincoln attended for six months in 1824. He moved to Schuyler County, Illinois, in 1828 where he taught school.
  222. Base Line Survey, The

    Nearby is one of two sites in Illinois that serve as the basis for all land surveys in the state. It is just northwest of Beardstown, where the 4th Principal Meridian intersects its base line.

    Originally, land was measured by "Metes and Bounds," with known landmarks as points of reference. Boundary lines were compass lines or natural boundaries such as streams. This system proved unsatisfactory since landmarks are changeable and compass lines can vary. In May, 1785, Congress adopted the "Rectangular System" of land measurement. In each state or group of states one or more north-south principal meridians and one or more east-west base lines on parallels of latitude are established at right angles to one another. These lines are determined by astronomical observation and numbered. The 3rd and 4th Principal Meridians intersect their respective base lines in Illinois and govern all land measurements in the state.

    Parallel lines are calculated at six mile intervals east and west through each principal meridian's territory. These divisions, called ranges, are consecutively numbered in each direction from the meridian. Similar lines parallel to the base line mark divisions called townships. The six mile squares created by the intersecting lines form government townships.

    The number and direction of the township and range lines, such as Range 2 West, Township 3 North, locate any township in relation to its principal meridian. Government townships are broken down into 36 numbered sections containing 640 acres. Acres form the basis of most property identification.
  223. Scripps Family, The

    This site was the homestead of the Scripps Family - pioneer journalists and philanthropists. John Scripps (1785-1868), a Methodist circuit rider, settled here in 1831. In 1849 he began publishing the Prairie Telegraph, now the Rushville Times. His nephew, John Locke Scripps (1818-1868) co-founded the Chicago Tribune and wrote the first biography of Abraham Lincoln. A great nephew, Edward Wyllis Scripps (1854-1926), founded United Press and the first newspaper chain in the United States - Scripps Howard. An older brother, James Edmund Scripps (1835-1906), founded the Detroit Evening News; and their sister, Ellen Browning Scripps (1836-1932), pioneered the concept of the feature article in journalism.
  224. Lincoln Depot, The

    From this building on February 11, 1861, Abraham Lincoln departed Springfield, Illinois, to assume the presidency of the United States. After bidding farewell to a number of friends, he delivered a brief, spontaneous and moving farewell address to the crowd, estimated at 1,000, from the rear platform of the train.
  225. Moweaqua Coal Mine Disaster

    This is the site of the Moweaqua Coal Mine Disaster which on December 24, 1932 took the lives of all 54 miners entering the mine that day. The Moweaqua Coal Mine was Shelby County's largest. An unprecedented drop in barometric pressure allowed methane gas to escape into the mine. The explosion occurred at 8 a.m. when the gas was ignited by open flame carbide lights. Efforts of rescue teams searching for survivors were in vain, although all bodies were recovered. This marked the end of the era of open flame carbide lights.
  226. Thompson Mill Bridge

    The road on which this bridge is located was once an important route between Springfield and Effingham. The bridge was completed in the autumn of 1868 at a cost of $2,500 and named for the owner of the first mill near here. It is the narrowest of all the covered bridges in Illinois, with a width of only 10 feet 7 inches. It is 11 feet 4 inches high and the siding stops before reaching the top cord to allow light to come in under the roof. The Howe Truss system, which the bridge uses, consists of panels in which two members cross one diagonal. The truss of this bridge is 105 feet long. The roof of the bridge protected the truss from weather.
  227. Black Hawk War Campsite

    In 1832 when Black Hawk and his Sauk and Fox followers returned to Illinois, 1500 mounted volunteer

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  228. Governor Shadrach Bond, 1773-1832

    Shadrach Bond, the first Governor of Illinois, was born November 24, 1773, in Fredericktown, Maryland. He came to Illinois in 1794 and farmed at New Design. In 1805 he was elected to the Indiana Territorial Assembly, where he was instrumental in creating the Illinois and Indiana boundaries. Bond was elected to Congress in 1812 as the first Territorial Delegate from Illinois. He served in both the Twelfth and Thirteenth Congresses. In 1818 Bond was elected Governor. During his term the capitol was moved from Kaskaskia to Vandalia, and a State Banking System was established.
  229. Carrier Mills Archaeological District

    This area of some 143 acres located approximately two miles south of Carrier Mills was inhabited by

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  230. Cahokia, Illinois

    Cahokia, the first permanent European settlement in Illinois, was established in 1669 by priests from the French Seminary of Foreign Missions in Quebec. In 1698, a mission party -- guided here by the famous explorer Henri de Tonti -- selected a site for the Mission of the Holy Family that was adjacent to a village of Tamaroa and Cahokia Indians.

    A typical French village gradually grew up around the mission. Its population, always small, was affected by the establishment of Kaskaskia and Fort de Chartres and by the cession of the land to the British in 1765 after the French and Indian War. In 1790, Cahokia became the seat of St. Clair County, a huge territory which then included the eighty northernmost counties of Illinois. Cahokia did not long retain her important position, however, because of recurring floods of the Mississippi and the growing importance of St. Louis and East St. Louis. The county seat was removed to Belleville in 1814. Both the village and the Cahokia Mounds, several miles to the northeast, were named for a subgroup of the Illinois Indian Tribe.

    The famous Chief Pontiac was assassinated near the village of Cahokia in 1769. George Rogers Clark negotiated here for Indian neutrality during the American Revolution. Landmarks such as the old Church of the Holy Family, the Old Cahokia Cemetery, the Cahokia Courthouse and the Jarrot Mansion represent Cahokia's proud past.
  231. Ingersoll Law Office, 1855-1857

    Two hundred feet east of here was the Ingersoll law office. Ebon Clark Ingersoll and Robert Green I

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  232. Deneen Family, The

    On this site stood the home of the Deneen family long associated with the history of McKendree College -- Rev. William L. Deneen; Professor Samuel H. Deneen; and Charles S. Deneen, Governor of Illinois, 1905-1913, and US Senator, 1925-1931. They were three generations of outstanding McKendree alumni.
  233. Home of Pierre Menard

    This home was built about 1800 by Pierre Menard (1766-1844), presiding officer of the Illinois Territorial Legislature and first Lieutenant Governor. The building is of French Colonial Architecture. The kitchen contains the original fireplace and water basin, and a restored bake oven. The original smokehouse stands at the rear.
  234. Abraham Lincoln

    Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin County, Kentucky, February 12, 1809. He moved with his family to

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  235. McKendree College

    Founded in 1828, this is one of the first colleges established in Illinois and is the oldest in the United States with continuous relationship to the Methodist Church. The school was first named Lebanon Seminary. At the urging of Rev. Peter Cartwright, the famous circuit-rider, the name was changed in 1830 to honor Bishop William McKendree. His donation of 480 acres helped create this school. Edward Ames was the first principal of the seminary. Peter Akers succeeded him as the first President. "Old Main" (1850) and the Chapel (1856) on campus are well-known landmarks in Illinois.
  236. Mississippi Bubble, The

    "They related that there are mines of gold and silver...There is reason to believe that the French who will settle among the Illinois Indians will make all these rich discoveries when the colony becomes more thickly populated." Thus, John Law, Scot adventurer and gambler, inflated the "Mississippi Bubble" in the fall of 1717. He had convinced the Duke of Orleans, regent for Louis XV, that paper money issued by a national bank and backed by a vast trading and colonizing enterprise would bring new life to the French economy. As part of the scheme, on January 1, 1718, the Company of the West received a 25-year charter to trade, settle and govern in the Mississippi Valley. Speculation in the shares ran wild as Frenchman of all classes engaged in the fantasy before the bubble burst in 1720 and left many investors bankrupt.

    Law's vision of the development of the region required more time and money than he had. Exaggerated accounts attracted some colonists; force brought others. As the operations of the Company in lower Louisiana expanded, the district of Illinois profited. Several French villages sprang up in the American Bottom south of here and mining expeditions searched for the fabled minerals. The real wealth in Illinois, however, was the fur trade and the agricultural produce which sustained the other French posts. The Company struggled along until Indian warfare and inadequate financial returns forced the surrender of its charter in 1731.
  237. Lincoln-Douglas Debate

    On August 27, 1858, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas, on a platform erected near State and Douglas Streets, met in the second of their seven joint debates. Douglas' answer to Lincoln's "Freeport Question" helped win the Senatorial race, but was fatal to his Presidential prospects two years later.
  238. Edwards Trace, The

    An important trail in the history of Illinois ran atop this ridge. Called the Edwards Trace, an ear

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  239. Steamboat Columbia Disaster, The

    On July 5, 1918, the steamboat Columbia sank upstream from this spot near what was then Wesley City. What began as one of the season's premier social events ended in tragedy.

    The Pekin South Side Social Club sponsored the ornate sternwheeler's ill-fated voyage. Beginning in Kingston Mines, some 500 passengers boarded it for a trip to Al Fresco Amusement Park in Peoria. On the return trip, as festivities were in full swing, a hole was torn in the Columbia's hull and it sank. The deceased were brought to this riverfront for identification. Of the 87 who died, 57 were from Pekin.
  240. Tremont Courthouse, 1839-1850

    Abraham Lincoln attended court in the fine two story rectangular brick courthouse with four Grecian columns and copper dome on this site. Here in 1842 he was challenged to a duel by James Shields. Lincoln last spoke here August 30, 1858.
  241. Union League of America

    On June 25, 1862, the Union League of America was founded at Pekin, Illinois, to promote patriotism and loyalty to the Union. Its members hoped to counter Northern disillusionment with President Lincoln's military policies after early Union defeats in the Civil War. Although closely allied with the Republican Party, the League sought to enroll all Union supporters, regardless of party. The league developed into a statewide and then a national organization. By December, 1863, it claimed 140,000 members in Illinois and almost a million nationwide. After the War, the League councils in the south were concerned with franchising the Negro and working for their education.
  242. Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices

    This portion of the Tinsley Building, a merchant block constructed in 1840-1841, is the only surviv

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  243. Lindbergh Field (missing)

    Springfield's first airport, developed by the Chamber of Commerce, was located on this 35-acre trac

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  244. Old State Capitol

    The Old State Capitol was the fifth statehouse in Illinois history. The building served as the capi

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  245. Pensoneau-Caillot Pioneer House

    Located in the heart of Petit Village Francois, this house was built by Laurent Etienne Pensoneau in 1818. He was the son of Etienne Pensoneau who built the first official St. Clair County Courthouse in 1817. Laurent's bride was a descendant of Jean Baptiste Saucier, the designer of the second Fort de Chartres.
  246. Lincoln-Douglas Debate

    On September 15, 1858, in the midst of the senatorial campaign of that year, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas met at Jonesboro in the third of the famous series of debates which made Lincoln a national figure. The debate was held in a grove one quarter-mile to the north.
  247. Illinois Agricultural College

    Illinois agricultural College at Irvington was the first college in the state for instruction in scientific and practical agricultural methods. It was chartered by the Illinois General Assembly in 1861 and opened in 1866. The main buildings were southwest of here on 560 acres of farm land. Almost from its beginning, the school encountered financial difficulties. In 1887 title to the college and land was vested in the State of Illinois. The property was sold and the proceeds given to Southern Illinois Normal University. Irvington College and the Hudelson Baptist Orphanage, 1907-1936, later occupied the campus.
  248. Carmi, Illinois

    On December 9, 1815, the General Assembly of the Illinois Territory created White County out of the northern section of Gallatin County. Settlers had been in the area for almost a decade before Carmi was platted as the seat of the new county in 1816 when captain Leonard White, veteran of the War of 1812 for whom the county was named, James Ratcliff, Daniel Hay and White were joint proprietors of Carmi, and Hay selected for the community the name which can be traced back to the Biblical character who was a son of Reuben, nephew of Joseph, and grandson of Jacob. The residence of John Craw served as White County's first courthouse. It later became the home of John M. Robinson (1794-1843), who served as US Senator from Illinois (1831-1843) and was a justice on the Illinois Supreme Court (1843). Carmi was also the home of four members of the US House of Representatives: Colonel John M. Crebs (1868-1873), James Robert Williams (1889-1895, 1899-1905), Orlando Burrell (1895-1897), and Roy Clippinger (1945-1949). Other sites of historical interest in Carmi include the Ratcliff Inn, where Abraham Lincoln stayed in 1840 while campaigning for Whig presidential candidate William Henry Harrison and which was restored in 1960 by the White County Historical Society, and the house built in 1871 by Colonel Everton J. Conger, commander of the troops which captured John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln's assassin. Historical markers have been erected on these sites.
  249. Carmi, Illinois

    On December 9, 1815, the General Assembly of the Illinois Territory created White County out of the northern section of Gallatin County. Settlers had been in the area for almost a decade before Carmi was platted as the seat of the new county in 1816 when captain Leonard White, veteran of the War of 1812 for whom the county was named, James Ratcliff, Daniel Hay and White were joint proprietors of Carmi, and Hay selected for the community the name which can be traced back to the Biblical character who was a son of Reuben, nephew of Joseph, and grandson of Jacob. The residence of John Craw served as White County's first courthouse. It later became the home of John M. Robinson (1794-1843), who served as US Senator from Illinois (1831-1843) and was a justice on the Illinois Supreme Court (1843). Carmi was also the home of four members of the US House of Representatives: Colonel John M. Crebs (1868-1873), James Robert Williams (1889-1895, 1899-1905), Orlando Burrell (1895-1897), and Roy Clippinger (1945-1949). Other sites of historical interest in Carmi include the Ratcliff Inn, where Abraham Lincoln stayed in 1840 while campaigning for Whig presidential candidate William Henry Harrison and which was restored in 1960 by the White County Historical Society, and the house built in 1871 by Colonel Everton J. Conger, commander of the troops which captured John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln's assassin. Historical markers have been erected on these sites.
  250. Carmi's Oldest House

    This house was built by early settler John Craw prior to 1817. In 1835 it was purchased by John M. Robinson, U.S. Senator (1831-43) and Illinois Supreme Court Justice (1843). The house was later occupied by his daughter Mrs. Robert Stewart and his granddaughter Miss Mary Jane Stewart.
  251. Colonel Conger House

    Colonel Everton J. Conger, who commanded the troops capturing Abraham Lincoln's assassin, John Wilkes Booth, built this house in 1871. He practiced law in Carmi, became a Federal Judge in Montana Territory, and later moved to Hawaii where he was an advisor to Queen Liliuokalani. The house was remodeled in 1841.
  252. First Presbyterian Church in Illinois

    In 1816 the Reverend James McGready of Kentucky organized Sharon, the first Presbyterian Church in Illinois, with Peter Miller, James Mayes, and James Rutledge as ruling elders. Three miles northeast of this site B. F. Spilman, active Presbyterian Church organizer, was ordained in 1824; .5 mile east is the present building and the 1817 cemetery.
  253. Flow Gently, Sweet Afton

    The music for this song was composed by Jonathon Edwards Spilman in 1836. He entered the ministry in 1858 and became pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in 1881. This church had been organized by his brother Benjamin F. Spilman on November 25, 1827, and was the first church in Carmi.
  254. Cedarville - Birthplace of Jane Adams

    Birthplace of Jane Addams 1860-1935. Humanitarian, Feminist, Social Worker, Reformer, Educator, Author, Publicist. Founder of Hull House, Pioneer Settlement Center, Chicago, 1889. President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. Nobel Peace Prize, 1931.
  255. Ratcliff Inn

    This building was erected in 1828 by James Ratcliff. Nicknamed 'Old Beaver' because of his energy, he was a founder of Carmi (1816), an innkeeper, merchant, and postmaster, and White County's first Clerk, Recorder, and Probate Judge. Abraham Lincoln lodged here in 1840. The inn was restored in 1960.
  256. Southern Illinois College

    Alma Mater of United States Senators William E, Borah, Idaho and Wesley L. Jones, Washington. This educational institution was chartered by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (1873). From the 1880's until 1935 it was a public school. It was purchased for use as a community center by the Kiwanis Club and Enfield citizens in 1907.
  257. Dement House

    Dement House, an imposing, lavishly furnished stone hotel, was built on this lot in 1855. It was sold to satisfy judgments in 1858. In 1861 it was used to house the military academy, which was incorporated as a veteran's college in 1867. This institution was reorganized as a coeducational college in 1873 and continued as a military academy, 1903 to 1912. From 1918 to 1928 the building was a tire factory. It was razed in 1934.
  258. Fulton's First Home

    John Baker, Fulton's first permanent settler, arrived in 1835 and built his three-room log cabin and outbuildings nearby. He lived in amity with the Indians and kept a rude hostelry. Later Fulton's first doctors, Daniel and Lucinda Reed, made the cabin their home, practiced medicine and also entertained travelers.
  259. Illinois and Mississippi Canal

    Construction on the "Hennepin Canal," as it was commonly known, began in 1892 and was completed in 1907 at a cost of more than seven million dollars. A feeder canal from the Rock River at Rock Falls joined the main canal 29 miles to the south near Mineral. Utilization of the Hennepin Canal never reached expected proportions because of rapid technological advances in other modes of transportation, and in 1951 it was closed to traffic.
  260. Lincoln in Sterling

    On July 18, 1856, Abraham Lincoln spent the night in this house as the guest of William Manaham. Lincoln had been invited by Robert Lange Wilson to address a John C. Fremont rally in Sterling. Wilson was a member of the famous Long Nine of the Illinois legislature during the 1830's.
  261. Market Place, The

    Early Fulton communal activity centered around this trigon. The ferry, powered successively by man, horse and steam, landed at its north end. Stores, hotels, warehouses and saloons faced all three sides. Later the sawmills rented it to store huge piles of lumber. It became a city park in 1958.
  262. Modern Woodmen

    This house was the head office of the Modern Woodmen of America, a fraternal life insurance society, when that organization first became an Illinois corporation in 1884. The house was the home of Dr. Henry M. Kennedy, head clerk of the fraternal society from 1884 to 1888. The Society was founded in 1883 by Joseph C. Root of Lyons, Iowa. Between 1886 and 1897 the office occupied three other sites in Fulton before being moved to Rock Island, where it is presently located.
  263. Steamboat Columbia Disaster, The

    On July 5, 1918, the steamboat Columbia sank upstream from this spot near what was then Wesley City

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  264. David Davis

    David Davis, a distinguished Illinois jurist, was born in Maryland in 1815. He graduated from Kenyon College in Ohio and studied law at Yale. In 1836 he settled at Bloomington, Illinois, which was his home town the remainder of his life. From the commonplace activities of a pioneer lawyer, Davis turned to politics and was elected as a Whig to the lower House of the Illinois Legislature in 1844. Three years later he served in the State Constitutional Convention. In 1848 he was elected judge of the State's Eighth Judicial Circuit, then comprised of fourteen central Illinois counties. He served until 1862. Many lawyers of distinction, including Abraham Lincoln, practiced before him. During this time he and Lincoln became warm friends. Lincoln at times presided over the court when the judge was absent. Davis organized the forces that nominated Lincoln in the Republican National Convention at Chicago in 1860 and then campaigned vigorously for Lincoln's election. Two years later Lincoln appointed Davis to the Supreme Court of the United States. During the 1870's, Davis disassociated himself from partisan affairs, establishing his reputation as a political independent. In 1877 he resigned from the court after being elected to the United States Senate by the Illinois Legislature. He served as President pro tempore from 1881 to 1883. He then retired to "Clover Lawn," his Victorian mansion in Bloomington, where he died in 1886. His mansion, at Monroe and Davis Street, now preserved by the Illinois State Historical Library, is open to the public.
  265. Metamora Court House

    As a member of the traveling bar of the Eighth Judicial Circuit, Lincoln came twice a year to Metamora, then the seat of Woodford County, to attend court in the courthouse which faces the north side of this park. David Davis, Robert G. Ingersoll and Adlai E. Stevenson were others who practiced here.
  266. Anna-Jonesboro

    Union County was created on January 2, 1818, by an act of the Territory of Illinois. Two months lat

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  267. Lincoln-Douglas Debate

    On September 15, 1858, in the midst of the senatorial campaign of that year, Abraham Lincoln and St

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  268. Margaretta Post Office

    On this site stood Margaretta Post Office, which served many northwestern communities of Clark County from 1840 to 1861. It was named for Margaret, wife of the Postmaster, William B. Marrs. Mail was carried to the post office first in saddlebags by horseback and later in portmanteaus by stagecoach. Marrs was a Representative in the State Legislature, 1836-1837. He was also a Justice of the Peace, 1835-1837, and a Supervisor of Roads in 1842.
  269. Big Prairie Church - Established 1812

    This church was the cradle of Methodism in White County. Early pioneers risked Indian raids to wors

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  270. Fort Payne

    Near this site in 1832, a 100-foot square stockade enclosed by wooden pickets, with two blockhouses on diagonal corners, was built. Here Captain Morgan L. Payne and his company of forty-five men protected the settlers from roaming Sauk Indians during the Black Hawk War.
  271. Big Prairie Church - Established 1812

    This church was the cradle of Methodism in White County. Early pioneers risked Indian raids to worship in the cabins of Robert Land and John Hanna. In 1812 presiding elder Peter Cartwright sent circuit rider John Smith to this settlement. This church was organized in Hanna's house.
  272. Carmi, Illinois

    On December 9, 1815, the General Assembly of the Illinois Territory created White County out of the northern section of Gallatin County. Settlers had been in the area for almost a decade before Carmi was platted as the seat of the new county in 1816 when captain Leonard White, veteran of the War of 1812 for whom the county was named, James Ratcliff, Daniel Hay and White were joint proprietors of Carmi, and Hay selected for the community the name which can be traced back to the Biblical character who was a son of Reuben, nephew of Joseph, and grandson of Jacob. The residence of John Craw served as White County's first courthouse. It later became the home of John M. Robinson (1794-1843), who served as US Senator from Illinois (1831-1843) and was a justice on the Illinois Supreme Court (1843). Carmi was also the home of four members of the US House of Representatives: Colonel John M. Crebs (1868-1873), James Robert Williams (1889-1895, 1899-1905), Orlando Burrell (1895-1897), and Roy Clippinger (1945-1949). Other sites of historical interest in Carmi include the Ratcliff Inn, where Abraham Lincoln stayed in 1840 while campaigning for Whig presidential candidate William Henry Harrison and which was restored in 1960 by the White County Historical Society, and the house built in 1871 by Colonel Everton J. Conger, commander of the troops which captured John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln's assassin. Historical markers have been erected on these sites.
  273. Ulysses S. Grant in Mattoon

    On May 15, 1861, Ulysses S. Grant mustered in the seventh district regiment in Mattoon. As recruiting officer, Grant had neither uniform nor commission. A month later, as a colonel, Grant took command of the group, renamed the 21st Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Of the 1,250 original enlistees, 603 marched with Grant into battle.
  274. Virginia

    County Seat of Cass County. Founded 1830 by Dr. H. H. Hall.
  275. Southern Illinois College

    Alma Mater of United States Senators William E, Borah, Idaho and Wesley L. Jones, Washington. This

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  276. John Messinger, 1771-1846

    John Messinger received a formal education in New England before settling on the Illinois frontier in 1802. After serving as St. Clair County Surveyor, he was appointed Deputy United States Surveyor and platted much of the government land between the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers. In 1835 he produced the first map of Illinois based on the official United States Survey.

    When Illinois was part of the Indiana territory, Messinger served in the territorial legislature. In 1818 he assisted in writing the constitution for the new State of Illinois and was elected the First Speaker in the House of Representatives.
  277. Tobacco Industry, The

    From the creation of Saline County in 1847 to the end of the century the production of tobacco was the principal industry. In 1870 Saline County had the highest tobacco production in the state. The Webber Brothers of Galatia and Raleigh were the largest buyers and processors in the county, some years exporting 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.
  278. Stacy's Tavern

    Moses Stacy, soldier in the War of 1812, arrived here in 1835. This inn, built in 1846 and his second home, was a half way stop between Chicago and the Fox River Valley and a probable stage stop for Rockford - Galena coaches. For many years the village was called 'Stacy's Corners.'
  279. Paris, Illinois

    Paris lies in the heart of a rich farming area. Most of the land embraced in Edgar County, including Paris, remained Kickapoo hunting grounds until 1819, but the eastern quarter of the county was part of a tract ceded by the Indians in 1819 and offered for sale at Vincennes as early as 1816. Edgar County was established in 1823, and Paris was laid out on twenty-six acres donated by Samuel Vance in April of that year. The Edgar County Courthouse is located at the center of this parcel of land.

    Alone or with others, Vance laid out the earliest roads from Paris in 1823-24. The first road, later known as the lower Terre Haute Road, is still being traveled today. A second road ran to Darwin, in Clark County. The fourth road, to the Vermilion salines near Danville, formed part of the Vincennes Trace and is now a section of Illinois Route 1 to Chicago.

    At 130 South Central Avenue in Paris is the former home of Milton K. Alexander, Brigadier General in the Illinois Mounted Volunteers during the Black Hawk War of 1832. The house was built in 1826 and enlarged in 1840. Alexander was acquainted with Abraham Lincoln, who as a lawyer frequently came to Paris when Edgar County was in the Eighth Judicial Circuit. Lincoln spoke in Paris on August 6, 1856, on behalf of the Republican presidential candidate, John C. Fremont.

    Lincoln spoke in Paris again on September 7, 1858, in his unsuccessful campaign against Stephen A. Douglas for United States Senate. A large proportion of the early settlers in Paris were from the South, and during the Civil War, there were many southern sympathizers called Copperheads. Some of these people were defeated in a minor clash with Union troops in February 1864.
  280. Market Place, The

    Early Fulton communal activity centered around this trigon. The ferry, powered successively by man,

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  281. Pontiac's Conspiracy

    Following the French and Indian War (1754-1763), France ceded all claims to their North American Territory, called New France, to England in the Treaty of Paris (February, 1763). English troops quickly occupied many former French forts and conditions began to change for the Indians. The English were interested in settling, not trading.

    A popular Ottawa Indian Chief, Pontiac, was able to unite many of the Northwest Territory Indian tribes in an uprising that came to be known as Pontiac's Conspiracy. From early 1763 into 1765, the Indians attacked forts and outlying settlements throughout the Great Lakes area. Only Fort Pitt and Fort Detroit remained in English control. After an unusual but unsuccessful 6 month seige of Fort Detroit, many Indians became discouraged and returned home to prepare for the coming winter. Pontiac then tried unsuccessfully to obtain aid from Commandant Neyon de Villiers at Fort de Chartres.

    According to local tradition, Pontiac then reluctantly met with George Croghan, Sir William Johnson's representative, at the site of Palermo, three miles east of here in July, 1765 to make preliminary arrangements for peace. Following the meeting at Palermo, the two men traveled to Fort Quiatenon (LaFayette, Indiana) and on to Fort Detroit to smoke a peace pipe and sign a treaty ending the uprising.
  282. Metamora Court House

    As a member of the traveling bar of the Eighth Judicial Circuit, Lincoln came twice a year to Metam

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  283. Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois

    The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of French trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763 when she surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Illinois became a county of Virginia. This was ceded to the United States in 1784, and became in turn a part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois Territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state.

    US 36 touches six counties which were part of the Eighth Judicial Circuit. From 1839 to 1860 Abraham Lincoln followed the court as it moved from county seat to county seat within the circuit. Thus, he came to such cities as Paris, Sullivan, Monticello, Decatur, and Springfield for the bi-annual terms.

    West of Decatur this highway passes near the Lincoln Trail Homestead State Park on the banks of the Sangamon River. This was the site of the first Lincoln home in Illinois when the family came from Indiana in 1830. The following spring Thomas Lincoln moved to Coles County and Abraham moved on to New Salem, 20 miles northwest of Springfield. US 36 passes through Springfield where Lincoln's home and tomb are state memorials. Springfield is also the site of the Old State Capitol where Lincoln delivered his famous 'House Divided' speech.
  284. Zion's Camp March Through Edgar County

    In 1834, Joseph Smith, prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), together with about 200 LDS volunteers from Kirtland, Ohio, marched to assist threatened church members in Jackson County, Missouri. Called "Zion's Camp," this armed group crossed the Wabash River into Edgar County on May 24, encamped near the river, and, after observing the Sabbath, passed through Paris on May 26, causing uneasiness among local residents who misunderstood their purpose. The trek of "Zion's Camp" provided Brigham Young and other LDS leaders with a model for organizing their later exodus from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Utah in 1846.
  285. Charters' Hotel

    John Charters operated a large tavern on this site from the late 1820's to November 1835. Under the name, "Sign of the Green Tree," it was operated by Thomas Redmond until 1838.
  286. Historic Vandalia

    Vandalia was the second capitol of Illinois, 1820-1839. Here met the General Assembly, the Supreme Court, and the Federal Courts. Abraham Lincoln served in the House of Representatives 1834-1839, and Stephen A. Douglas 1836-1837.
  287. House of Divine Worship, Erected in 1823

    The Illinois General Assembly donated five lots in Vandalia to promote the construction of a church for the use of all denominations. The forty-five by sixty feet one-story frame structure erected in the summer of 1823 was used primarily by the Presbyterians and Methodists and also for public meetings and as a schoolhouse.
  288. Pontiac Peace Treaty

    A few miles west of here on July 18, 1765, Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, and George Croghan, British re

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  289. Old State Cemetery

    The Illinois General Assembly authorized Governor Edward Coles in 1823 to convey to Vandalia one and one-half acres for a state burial ground. Here were buried four members of the legislature and several state officials who died while in office. The monument erected by the state is in adjoining South Hill Cemetery.
  290. Public Printer

    This is the site of a two-story frame building occupied by Robert Blackwell, state printer 1818-1832, and publisher of the laws of the United States. In 1823 he became publisher of the Illinois Intelligencer newspaper. The first periodical in Illinois, the Illinois Monthly Magazine, was printed here in 1826. Colonel Blackwell (1792-1866) was a member of the Illinois House of Representatives 1832-1836 and Senate 1838-1840.
  291. Robert K. McLaughlin Home

    On this site lived Robert K. McLaughlin, State Treasurer 1820-1823, State Senator 1828-1832, 1836-1837, and Register of the United States Land Office 1837-1845. Here the Governors of Illinois resided when the legislature was in session. The McLaughlin home was the social center during the time the capital was in Vandalia.
  292. Zion's Camp March Through Edgar County

    In 1834, Joseph Smith, prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), together w

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  293. Ottawa Travel Road - Ten Mile Grove, The

    The Ottawa Travel Road begins in Danville. Of prehistoric origin, it was used until the early 1850'

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  294. Illinois and Michigan Canal, The

    This historic artery of travel was commenced in 1836 and finished in 1848. By carrying pioneers and

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  295. Site of Ernst Hotel

    Here stood a two-story log building erected in 1819 for Ferdinand Ernst who brought the German colony to Vandalia. Named Union Hall, it was operated as a hotel. After Ernst's death in 1823 it was managed by E.M. Townsend, and from April 1825 by Frederick Hollman.
  296. Third State Capitol, Erected in 1836

    The third capitol building owned by the State was restored as a memorial in 1933. It was the capitol from December 3, 1836 to July 4, 1839. Abraham Lincoln was a member of the House during the three sessions of the legislature held in this building, and was the leader in the removal of the capital to Springfield. Stephen A. Douglas was a member of the 1836-1837 session. The Fayette County Courthouse occupied this building 1839-1933.
  297. Galena, Illinois

    Prior to 1820, Indians and occasional white traders occupied LaPointe, the name given to the presen

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  298. Hubbard Trail

    This trail was blazed by Gurdon S. Hubbard, 1822-1824, connecting the trading posts of the American

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  299. Ottawa Travel Road - Ten Mile Grove, The

    The Ottawa Travel Road begins in Danville. Of prehistoric origin, it was used until the early 1850's. It wandered northwest following higher ground, fording streams and detouring around seasonal obstructions. Here at Ten Mile Grove it divided, one fork going west to Saybrook the other to Ottawa. In 1848 William (Gunsmith Bill) Trickel opened a general store and blacksmith shop which also served the area as a post office from 1848 to 1857. The Grove was so named because of the distance from the nearest camping place on the Ottawa Travel Road to the southeast.
  300. Fort Sheridan

    This U.S. Army Post was named after Civil War Cavalry General Philip Sheridan, to honor his many se

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  301. Welcome to Illinois

    In 1673 Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette explored the Illinois country for France. By the 1763 Treaty ending the French and Indian War, this area passed to England. During the American Revolution, George Rogers Clark's men captured it for the Commonwealth of Virginia. Illinois was later governed as part of the Old Northwest Territory, the Indiana Territory, and the Illinois Territory. In 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. Much of the land between the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers was a Federal Military Tract, where veterans of the War of 1812 could claim 160 acres in partial compensation for their services. Few veterans actually took possession of their lands, however, and 'squatters,' who had no valid land titles, were among the first white men to populate the area. From 1846 to 1861, nearly 1,000 Swedish religious dissenters lived at Bishop Hill, a communal settlement north of Galesburg. Their experience attracted other Swedish immigrants to work on farms and railroads. Among them was the family of poet and author Carl Sandburg. His birthplace in Galesburg is a State Historic Site. The Illinois segment of the Great River Road extends about 550 miles along the Mississippi from the Wisconsin border to Cairo and passes many Indian mounds, a reminder of civilization before the coming of the white men.
  302. LaSalle-Peru, Illinois

    The story of the twin cities of LaSalle and Peru is closely interwoven with the history of the Illi

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  303. Goshen Road

    The Goshen Road was one of the main arteries of travel in the early 1800's, when Illinois was frontier country. The road ran in a northwesterly direction from Shawneetown to Edwardsville -- a distance of more than 150 miles. Shawneetown and Edwardsville were two of the leading commercial towns in Illinois. In the vast area between these towns most of the early settlements were along the Goshen Road, which was three miles east of this point in Jefferson County. In 1821, after the county was organized, an alternate road was surveyed in order to pass through Mt. Vernon, the county seat.
  304. Legend of the Piasa, The

    In 1673 Jacques Marquette reported that he and fellow French explorer Louis Jolliet discovered a painting of what was probably two 'Water Monsters' on the bluffs of the Mississippi River near present-day Alton. By 1700 those pictographic creatures were no longer visible. In 1836 the novelist John Russell described an image cut into the bluff of a legendary dragon-like creature with wings. According to Russell, the creature was called the Piasa, 'The Bird That Devours Men.' That version of the pictograph as well as myths about the Piasa have become prominent in folklore.
  305. Mississippi River Festival, The

    The once world-renowned concert venue Mississippi River Festival ("MRF") began as a pioneering expe

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  306. Galena, Illinois

    Prior to 1820, Indians and occasional white traders occupied LaPointe, the name given to the present site of Galena. The settlement grew rapidly in 1823 and 1824 as each boat deposited new arrivals on the banks of the Fever (now Galena) River. The town was laid out in 1826, and the name changed to Galena (Latin for sulphide of lead). Terror reigned in the region during the Black Hawk War in 1832, but the suppression of the Indians cleared the way for unrestricted white settlement.

    As supply center for the mines and shipping point for the growing river commerce, Galena became a thriving city when Chicago was still a swamp village. Galena's zenith arrived in the 1840's, and residents lavished money on elaborate houses, many of which still stand today. By the 1850's the surface lead deposits were depleted; the Galena River, once over 300 feet wide, began to gather silt; and the railroads started to take the river commerce.

    Ulysses S. Grant arrived here in 1860 to work in his father's leather store. A year later this still obscure clerk marched off to the Civil War; in 1865, he returned in triumph to a gift mansion donated by his Galena neighbors. Grant was so prominent that he overshadowed the town's eight other Civil War generals.

    In 1869, after his election as President of the United States, Grant appointed his Galena friends John A. Rawlins, Secretary of War; Elihu B. Washburne, Secretary of State; Ely S. Parker, Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
  307. Illinois and Michigan Canal, The

    This historic artery of travel was commenced in 1836 and finished in 1848. By carrying pioneers and their produce between Lake Michigan and the Illinois Valley, it figured largely in the development of northern Illinois. Superseded by the Deep Waterway after fifty years of use, it is now devoted to recreational purposes.
  308. Salem, Illinois

    Salem is locally known as the 'Gateway to Little Egypt.' Egypt refers to southern Illinois. In the

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  309. Third Principal Meridian, The

    At the point where U.S. Highway 51 and the Jefferson-Marion County road meet, the Third Principal M

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  310. Northern Boundary, The

    The northern boundary of Illinois as prescribed in the Ordinance of 1787 was an east and west line from the southern tip of Lake Michigan at approximately 41 degrees, 37 minutes passing through this region to the Mississippi River. When Illinois applied for admission into the Union the bill included this boundary. While the measure was still pending in the House, Nathaniel Pope, the Illinois delegate in Congress, felt the necessity of giving Illinois a firm footing on the lake thus committing her interest to northern commerce through the lakes to off-set the influence of the southern trade on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers in case of future internal conflict. Pope felt that the territorial addition would, 'afford additional security to the perpetuity of the Union, inasmuch as the State would thereby be connected with the states of Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, through the Lakes.' The amendment introduced by Pope making the boundary 42 degrees, 30 minutes, passed easily and the Enabling Act was approved on April 18, 1818. Illinois gained approximately 61 miles of added territory including 14 counties covering 8500 square miles of fertile soil, lake and river ports, and such future prosperous cities as Chicago, Rockford, Freeport, and Galena. Politically, this additional northern territory decisively influenced Illinois in favor of national unity and against slavery during the Civil War period and was important in the nomination of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Thus Pope's foresight had national repercussions as well as significance for Illinois.
  311. Toluca Coal Mine

    The Toluca Coal Mine marker is the Site of the Devlin Coal Company, which from 1893 to 1924 employe

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  312. Lincoln-Douglas Debate

    On October 7, 1858, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas met in Galesburg for the fifth of seven joint debates. From a platform erected along the east side of Old Main on the Knox College campus Lincoln said, 'He is blowing out the moral lights around us, when he contends that whoever wants slaves has a right to hold them.'
  313. Lincoln-Douglas Debate

    On October 7, 1858, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas met in Galesburg for the fifth of seven joint debates. From a platform erected along the east side of Old Main on the Knox College campus Lincoln said, 'He is blowing out the moral lights around us, when he contends that whoever wants slaves has a right to hold them.'
  314. Lincoln-Douglas Debate

    On October 7, 1858, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas met in Galesburg for the fifth of seven joint debates. From a platform erected along the east side of Old Main on the Knox College campus Lincoln said, 'He is blowing out the moral lights around us, when he contends that whoever wants slaves has a right to hold them.'
  315. Vincennes in the American Revolution

    After taking the Kaskaskia on July 5, 1778, George Rogers Clark, acting under Virginia authority, sent Father Pierre Gibault to Vincennes as his envoy. Gibault convinced the villagers there to take an oath of loyalty to the Americans. In early August, Captain Leonard Helm arrived to take command of Fort Sackville. On December 17, British forces under Colonel Henry Hamilton recaptured the fort. Clark, with some 160 men, reached Vincennes on February 23, 1779, after an eighteen day march through flooded country. The move caught Hamilton by surprise. Two days later he surrendered. The Fort, renamed Patrick Henry, remained in American hands.
  316. Fort Sheridan

    This U.S. Army Post was named after Civil War Cavalry General Philip Sheridan, to honor his many services to Chicago (1868-1883).

    The Commercial Club of Chicago, concerned since 1877 with the need for a military garrison, was motivated by the Haymarket Riot in 1886 to arrange for the donation of 632 acres of land to the Federal Government for this purpose. Troops arrived in November 1887 and were used in 1894 to quell labor unrest during the Pullman strike.

    Fort Sheridan became a mobilization, training, and administrative center beginning with the Spanish American War in 1898. During World War II, over 500,000 men and women were processed through military service here. Many Army officers who later became famous lived here, including George Patton and Jonathon Wainwright.

    The 94 Historic District buildings, built 1889-1910, include 64 structures that were the first major works of architects William Holabird and Martin Roche of Chicago. These earliest buildings are made of bricks molded and fired on site, using clay mined form lakefront bluffs. The water tower, originally the tallest structure in the Chicago area, was altered and shortened by 60 feet in 1940. The row of buildings flanking the tower were troop barracks.

    The 110-acre Historic District, placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1984. Fort Sheridan closed in 1993.
  317. Joseph T. Bowen Country Club

    From 1912 to 1962, Bowen Park was the site of the Joseph T. Bowen Country Club, owned by the Hull-House Association of Chicago. Here, children from many national, racial and religious backgrounds learned to respect each other and the environment. Bowen Park's natural environment also provided children of Chicago's hard streets an atmosphere never before experienced. Bowen Country Club influenced over 40,000 people and helped further the ideals of Nobel Peace Prize winner, Jane Addams, and Louise DeKoven Bowen. On this site the club achieved its motto, "secure from the slow strain of the world's contagion."
  318. Rondout Train Robbery, The

    On June 12, 1924, the largest train robberies in U.S. history occurred near here. Bandits who boarded the train in Chicago forced postal clerks to surrender sacks containing more than two million dollars in securities and cash.

    Local police apprehended the gunman within a few days. The U.S. Postal Inspection Service investigated the case and identified the masterminds, one of whom was a trusted employee of the postal service. Some of the loot was never recovered.

    In all, eight men were convicted in federal court and sentenced within seven months of the robbery.
  319. Washburn and Moen Manufacturing Company

    The Washburn and Moen Manufacturing Company of Worcester, MA., established a wire mill - the Waukegan Works - east of this location along Lake Michigan. The land for its Illinois operation was purchased January 16, 1891, on the recommendation of its advisers: Philip W. Moen, Charles G. Washburn, Fred H. Daniels, and Edwin Lenox and included much of the Elisha Wadsworth estate. In March 1891, on forty acres, construction of the mill complex was started. By September, a galvanizing operation began. In November, the company's subdivision, the Waukegan Highlands, was platted west of the mill. The first wire was drawn in December.

    In 1892, the Company, a principal manufacturer of Glidden Barbed wire, introduced Waukegan Barbed Wire, invented by John D. Curtis.

    The establishment of the plant led both an industrial and population boom. Workers from Worcester and immigrants from Finland, Sweden, and Eastern Europe moved to the Washburn and Moen subdivision. Slovenian workers called the area the "Kompanija"- the Company District. First named South Waukegan, the community that rapidly developed near the mill was later incorporated as North Chicago.

    The American Steel and Wire Company, which later became a part of the United States Steel Corporation, acquired the mill in 1899. By the 1950s, the plant had become one of Lake County's largest employers. In 1979, the mill was closed for economic reasons.
  320. Founding of Pi Beta Phi Fraternity



    The fraternity's 1940 Convention voted to preserve the home as a memorial to its founders.

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  321. Wyatt Earp Birthplace

    Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp, famous for the 1881 gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona Terri

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  322. Liberty's Pioneer Mill

    This mill, started in 1833 by Andrew Smith, was continued by his descendants, the Morrison family,

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  323. Tigress Flagpole, The

    The River packet. TIGRESS, commandeered by the Union Army, carried General U. S. Grant up the Tenne

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  324. Lincoln and the Black Hawk War

    On May 8, 1832, while encamped approximately one mile west of this point, Abraham Lincoln was muste

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  325. Starved Rock

    This was the site of Fort St. Louis, erected by the French traders LaSalle and Tonti in 1682. For the following ten years Fort St. Louis was the center of French influence in Illinois. According to tradition, a band of Illinois Indians was besieged here in 1769 by northern tribes seeking to avenge the murder of the Ottawa Chief Pontiac. Stranded on the Rock and unable to secure provisions, the Illinois band died of starvation. The site became known as Starved Rock from that legend.
  326. Regulators and the Banditti, The

    In the 1830,s and 1840,s an organized criminal gang known as the Banditti of the Prairie was active

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  327. Robert Ridgway and 'Bird Haven'

    Robert Ridgway, leading American ornithologist, was born at Mount Carmel, Illinois, on July 2, 1850

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  328. New Method Book Bindery

    New Method Book Bindery (Bound to Stay Bound Books since 1970) was established at 220 S. Main, Jacksonville, Illinois, in January 1920 by Lawrence D. Sibert and William Suhy. The bindery quickly became one of the nation's leading library binders, redoing old books for public and school libraries all over the United States. Lawrence Sibert helped found the Library Binding Institute in 1935, a trade organization for library binders.

    New Method later specialized in "pre-binding" books, using special materials and processes to make new children's books more durable for use in school and public libraries. Millions of the books used in these libraries over many decades have been "Bound To Stay Bound Books," earning Jacksonville, Illinois, the title of "Library Book Binding Capital of the World" in 1954.
  329. Mississippi River Festival, The

    The once world-renowned concert venue Mississippi River Festival ("MRF") began as a pioneering experiment in regional cooperation between Southern Illinois University Edwardsville and the St. Louis Symphony. The Symphony was invited to establish residence on the university campus and offer a summer series of concerts and cultural programs in an outdoor amphitheatre constructed on this site. From June 1969 through August 1980, nearly 1.5 million people attending concerts here performed by some of the best artists of the day, including: The Who, Elton John, Judy Collins, Bob Hope, B.B. King, Tina Turner, the Allman Brothers, James Taylor, The St. Louis Symphony Orchestra, The Beach Boys, Henry Mancini, Gordon Lightfoot, The Grateful Dead, Blood, Sweat and Tears, Waylon Jennings, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, The Guess Who, Chick Corea, Joni Mitchell, Barry Manilow, Bob Dylan, EmmyLou Harris, Smokey Robinson, Stanley Clark, Alan Jackson, Arlo Guthrie, the Ellington Orchestra, Ella Fitzgerald, Yes, Itzhak Perkman, Van Cliburn, Willie Nelson, and the Eagles. Crowds found their seats on the grass or sat beneath the spacious "MRF" tent. The excellence of the performances, the unique charm of the setting, and the enjoyment shared by the diversity of the attendees elevated the MRF to legendary status among artists and fans.

    SIU-Edwardsville also utilized this site as the location for commencement exercises for twenty consecutive years (1963-1982), involving nearly 35,000 SIUE graduates, who, along with their family and friends, experienced an event here bearing powerful personal historical significance.
  330. Gustavus Koerner

    Gustavus Koerner came to Belleville from Germany in 1833. He took a law degree from the University

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  331. Atlanta Public Library-Museum

    The Atlanta Public Library was founded in 1873 by public spirited citizens who realized the importa

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  332. Centralia Coal Company Mine No. 5 Disaster

    On March 25, 1947 a violent explosion struck Centralia Coal Company Mine No. 5 located in Wamac, Illinois. By March 29, it was confirmed that the explosion, combined with the subsequent release of poisonous gas, had taken the lives of 111 of the 142 men working in the mine at the time of the accident.

    The disaster focused state and national attention on known hazardous conditions existing both at Mine No 5 and the coal mining industry as a whole. Ultimately, the result was passage of new mine safety regulations for the industry.

    This marker is dedicated in memory of the miners who lost their lives in the tragedy.
  333. Salem, Illinois

    Salem is locally known as the "Gateway to Little Egypt." Egypt refers to southern Illinois. In the early days of statehood, crop failures threatened the existence of the isolated settlements in northern and central Illinois, and trips were made into the more populated southern section of the state to obtain grain.

    Salem is located at the crossroad of several prominent old trails, and a settlement was laid out in 1823. Later Mark Tully and Rufus Ricker deeded the land comprising Salem to Marion County for a county seat. The community grew slowly and in 1855 was legally organized as a town. In 1865 it became a city.

    William Jennings Bryan, "the Great Commoner," was born in Salem on March 19, 1860, and lived here until 1883. Lawyer, newspaperman, congressman, Secretary of State, political advisor, and three times a candidate for the Presidency, Bryan was one of the greatest orators of his day. He served as prosecutor in the famous John Scopes trial shortly before his death in July, 1925. His birthplace at 408 S. Broadway is open to the public.

    Salem has an agricultural and industrial history. It was a principal marketplace for red top hayseed, which was in great demand in Europe during World War I. Oil was discovered near here in 1938, and production of 259,000 barrels daily was reached in March, 1940. In 1942 Salem became the eastern terminus of a 550-mile petroleum pipeline from Texas.
  334. Third Principal Meridian, The

    At the point where U.S. Highway 51 and the Jefferson-Marion County road meet, the Third Principal Meridian intersects its east-west base line. This cardinal point was established by a Federal surveyor on February 1, 1815. At least 60 percent of the land in Illinois is measured from and identified by these two important coordinates.

    In the original thirteen states land had been measured by metes and bounds, employing known landmarks and compass points, but the system had proved inaccurate and impermanent. As a result, the Jefferson Committee on Public Lands devised the rectangular method in 1784. It became law the following year with the passage of the Land Ordinance of 1785, which applied to government lands not yet surveyed in the area northwest of the Ohio River.

    The ordinance stated that "The surveyors as they are respectively qualified, shall proceed to divide the said territory into townships of six miles square, by lines running due north and south, and others crossing these at right angles, as near as may be." Each new survey had to be tied to a principal meridian and its base line. The First Principal Meridian was laid out to govern land mostly in the Ohio country; the Second, mostly in Indiana; and the Third--running due north from the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers--in Illinois only.

    Surveyors' townships are numbered north and south of a base line and placed in ranges that are numbered east and west of a meridian. Unless a township is fractional it is further divided into 36 sections, each measuring one mile by one mile. A full section contains 640 acres.
  335. William Jennings Bryan

    William Jennings Bryan lived in Salem, Illinois, from his birth, March 19, 1860, until 1875. A national figure after his "Cross of Gold" speech in 1896, Bryan was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for President in 1896, 1900, 1908, and served as Secretary of State, 1913 - 1915. He died in 1925 after the Scopes "Evolution" trial.
  336. Elijah Parish Lovejoy

    Elijah Parish Lovejoy

    Elijah Parish Lovejoy was the first pastor of upper Alton Presbyterian

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  337. Fort Massac

    The high bank overlooking the Ohio River at Metropolis drew a series of occupants to the site. Prehistoric Native Americans camped near here. In 1757, after years of intermittent use for trading purposes, the French constructed a fortification to block British expansion into the Mississippi River basin. The fort was named in honor of the Marquis de Massiac, a French naval minister. The end of the French and Indian War in 1763 marked the fort passing into British hands. In 1778 as a prelude to his march on Kaskaskia, George Rogers Clark and his men landed at the mouth of Massac Creek and advanced to the fort which they found abandoned. Under orders from President Washington, the fort was rebuilt in 1794 and garrisoned to guard American interests on the lower Ohio River. A customs port was opened as was a post office. Zebulon Pike, for whom Pike's Peak is named, served here as a Lieutenant. After the War of 1812 the post was no longer needed and it was again abandoned. In 1908, in recognition of its historical importance, the site was dedicated as Illinois' first state park. Archaeological excavations in the 1930's, 1960's and 1970's provided information which ultimately resulted in a reconstructed fort from the American period. Dedicated in 1973, the reconstructed fort was not placed on the original location to the west in order to preserve the site's integrity.
  338. Confederate Operatives in Mattoon

    Draft ISHS Commemorative Marker TextConfederate Operatives in MattoonWith the fortunes of conventio

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  339. Welcome to Illinois

    In 1673 Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette explored the Illinois Country for France. By the 1763 treaty ending the French and Indian War, this area passed to England. During the American Revolution, George Rogers Clark's men captured it for the Commonwealth of Virginia. Illinois was later governed as part of the Northwest Territory, the Indiana Territory, and the Illinois Territory. In 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state.

    The Northwest Ordinance had placed Illinois' northern boundary at the southern tip of Lake Michigan. During the debate on the statehood bill, Nathaniel Pope, Illinois Territory's delegate to Congress, proposed an amendment that set the boundary at its present location. Through Pope's foresight, Illinois gained the fourteen northern counties, including the rich Galena lead mine district and the port of Chicago. The Great Lakes trade route brought settlers from the northeastern states.

    Several nearby towns claim distinction. Elgin was the site of a noted watch factory, Dundee was the home of Allan Pinkerton, who founded a detective agency in 1850 and later served Abraham Lincoln's bodyguard and as director of the spy service during the Civil War.

    The Fox River area, formerly a hunting ground for Potawatomi Indians, is now not only a sportsman's paradise but also a land of dairy farms and resorts.
  340. aaatest123

  341. The Second Morgan County Courthouse (1830-1868)

    Jacksonville’s first courthouse on the square was a primitive structure built in 1826 that burned down on December 6, 1827, the second Morgan County courthouse played a significant role and was located on the southwest corner of the town square. This building was the center for judicial and political activities in Morgan County from 1830 to 1868.

    On May 12, 1868, at the laying of the cornerstone of the new Morgan county courthouse, then-prominent Jacksonville attorney Murray McConnel addressed the details of the second courthouse. This two-story building was approximately 50 feet by 40 feet and was the first brick structure of this size in Morgan County. William Cullen Bryant, a writer from the east, described it as the “the ugliest of possible brick courthouse with a spire and weathercock on its top.”

    McConnel stated that “some of the great men of the nation made their first debut” in this courthouse. James A. McDougall was an early lawyer who served as Illinois Attorney General and later a U. S. Senator. Others were Governors Joseph Duncan, John Reynolds, and Thomas Ford; Judges Samuel D. Lockwood, William Thomas, William Brown, Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., David M. Woodson, and Charles Hodges. Many well-known attorneys tried cases in this courthouse including McConnel, James Berdan, Waller Jones, David A. Smith, Josiah Lamborn, Richard Yates, A. H. Buckner and John H. Hardin. Two of the great politicians in Illinois and the nation, Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln, were also associated with this courthouse.
  342. Coles County Courthouse

    On December 25, 1830, the Illinois General Assembly created Coles County. At this time, Charleston became the county seat and was just a hamlet called “Coles Courthouse.” In 1831, a log-cabin courthouse was constructed. About four years later, a two-story four-square courthouse replaced the first. It was in the second courthouse in 1847 that Abraham Lincoln argued one of his most famous cases, the Matson Slave Trial, in which he represented a slave owner. The current Richardsonian Romanesque courthouse, designed by famed Chicago architect Cornelius W. Rapp, was constructed in 1898-1900.
  343. Virginia Gregg

    Actress Virginia Gregg was born at 325 East Locust Street in Harrisburg on March 6, 1916. In an acting career spanning 40-plus years, she appeared in no less than 1,200 radio and television dramas, and more than 40 motion pictures, usually in supporting roles. Her television work included roles in Gunsmoke, Dragnet, Dr. Kildare, The Twilight Zone, The Waltons, and many others. Film castings included Spencer’s Mountain, Operation Petticoat, and as the off-screen voice of the mummified mother in all three Psycho films. Her skill and versatility led her to be described as “The Actress’s Actress.” Virginia Gregg died in Encino, California, on September 15, 1986.
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  345. The Winged Ear Logo

    The DEKALB® brand winged ear logo is perhaps one of the most widely-recognized agricultural trademarks in the world. Over the years it has undergone many design enhancements from the original concept. But the same iconic image of a flying ear of corn, first conceived in 1935 here in DeKalb, remains. The original concept behind the logo is credited to DeKalb Agricultural Association founder Tom Roberts Sr. He believed that the increased yields from newly-developed DEKALB® hybrid corn would help “lift” farmers’ mortgages, even as dairy cows and hogs had done earlier. When employee Ken Kramer suggested putting wings on an ear of corn, Roberts immediately approved. The basic design of the company’s logo was thus born. The first appearance of the winged ear with the words “DEKALB Quality Hybrid Will Be Your Mortgage Lifter" was in October 1935 on company letterhead. An enhanced version of the logo developed by an ad agency was legally registered with the U.S. Patent Office as the company’s trademark on August 25, 1936 and assigned trademark registration number 337,915. The new logo was first used in an advertisement which appeared in the Prairie Farmer magazine dated October 24, 1936. In 1938, the first signs appeared in farmers fields.

    In 1998 Monsanto purchased DEKALB Genetics Corporation and now proudly owns the DEKALB® brand and the winged ear logo that represents it. Today the DEKALB® brand and the winged ear logo are legally registered as trademarks of Monsanto in more than 80 countries worldwide.
  346. Charles Cotta

    On this site by Sept. 25, 1901, Charles Cotta created and built his invention of the world’s first four-wheel drive (U.S. Patent #652-949) and four-wheel independent steering automobile (U.S. Patent #8700-175). Cotta’s invention revolutionized the automotive industry, particularly heavy-duty vehicles, including military and precise aerospace machines. Cotta was born August 26, 1871, and raised four miles east of Lanark at Nursery, his father’s farm, business, and rural post office. He had no mechanical experience, prefabricated parts, or access to precision machinery. Yet even after his death on July 26, 1945, his vision led the Cotta Transmission Company to worldwide sales, outer space, and the future.
  347. Jackson County, Illinois

    On January 10, 1816, Jackson County, created from Randolph and Johnson counties became Illinois’ ninth county. Named for General (later president) Andrew Jackson, hero of the Battle of New Orleans. The county’s first seat, Brownsville, was established on land donated by Conrad Will and was once Illinois’ third largest town.

    In 1836, Benningsen Boon vs Juliet, one of the first court cases arguing against African-American indentured servitude in Illinois, was heard in Brownsville and later settled by the Illinois Supreme Court.

    The original Jackson courthouse burned in January 1843, and citizens voted to relocate the county seat to land donated by Dr. John Logan, father of General “Black Jack” Logan. The newly minted town of Murphysboro officially became the county seat in September of 1843.
  348. Conrad Will of Brownsville

    Dr. Conrad Will, the “Father of Jackson County,” was born in Pennsylvania in 1779 and came to Illinois in 1813. He was a physician, but also operated a grist mill, tannery, and salt works. He was one of the founders of Jackson County and in 1816 donated land for Brownsville, the first county seat. Dr. Will was Jackson County’s delegate to the first Illinois Constitutional Convention. He served in the General Assembly from 1818 until his death in 1835. When Will County, Illinois, was created in 1836, it was named in his honor.
  349. DeKalb Poultry Research, Inc.

    Success in developing and commercializing hybrid seed corn in the 1930s and early 1940s prompted DeKalb Agricultural Association in 1944 to see if the principles of hybridization could be applied to the breeding of poultry. Association President Tom Roberts Sr. and Ray C. Nelson, V.P. of the newly-formed poultry division, set out to develop superior egg layers for the nation’s farmers and egg producer industry.

    Dr. E. E. Schnetzler of Purdue University was hired in 1945 as DeKalb’s Director of Poultry Research. A research farm was established at this site. By the mid 1950s research concentrated on improving the efficient white egg layers.

    To meet growing demand for its hybrid chicks DeKalb formed an associate hatchery organization. Using parent stocks purchased from DeKalb the hatcheries produced chicks that were sold to egg-producers in the U.S. and Canada. DeKalb entered the international market in the late 1950s/early 1960s providing parent stock to distributors in Europe, Argentina and Japan. By purchasing the J.J. Warren Company in 1971 DeKalb gained access to an excellent brown egg layer that was color sexable. By the 1980s DeKalb white or brown layers were found in over 25 countries, and the poultry operation was named DeKalb Poultry Research, Inc. (DPRI).

    In 1995 DPRI was sold to the U.S. affiliate of Toshuku Ltd., DPRI’s Japanese distributor. It was then purchased by Hendrix Poultry Breeders B.V of the Netherlands in 2000 and is now part of Hendrix Genetics. DeKalb layers enjoy continued success in major markets globally.
  350. Israel Blanchard

    In August 1862, federal authorities detained Israel Blanchard, John A. Logan's brother-in-law, as he walked near the court house. Blanchard was subsequently taken to the Logan Hotel, and arrested on vague charges related to alleged anti-war activities. This was Blanchard's second wartime arrest.

    Blanchard's arrest, one of many taking place across Illinois and the nation, raised serious questions about the nature of civil liberties during wartime. The constitutional system of checks and balances was particularly strained during this period as the president, the Congress, and the federal courts struggled to balance individual liberty and national security.
  351. Dr. John Logan

    Dr. John Logan, born in Ireland in 1788, came to America with his family in 1793. He moved to Jackson County in 1822 where he married Elizabeth Jenkins. Dr. Logan served four terms in the Illinois Legislature and became a friend of Abraham Lincoln. In 1839, Lincoln suggested that Logan County be named in his honor. In 1843, Dr. Logan gave land for Murphysboro and soon built the Logan House hotel on this site. He died here in 1853. At his death his son, John A. Logan, was serving his first term in the Illinois General Assembly.
  352. Logan Day 1914

    Murphysboro celebrated its first Logan Day on August 3rd, 1914. This was Illinois’ second Logan Day. The first occurred in Chicago in 1897. Logan Day brought 25,000 people to Murphysboro. Among the attendees were Illinois Governor Edward F. Dunne, who dedicated a monument at Logan's birthplace, and Logan's daughter Mary Logan Tucker.

    The 4th Regiment of the Illinois National Guard traveled to Murphysboro to be a part of the event. Arriving by train, they acted as the Guard of Honor as Gov. Dunne dedicated the cornerstone of what was hoped to be a museum to Logan and America's volunteer soldiers.
  353. Major General John A. Logan

    John A. Logan was born here in 1826. He fought in the Battle of Bull Run as a Democratic Congressman. Logan joined the Union Army and before the Civil War's end he earned the rank of Major General. Experiences in the war changed Logan from a supporter of slavery to a champion of equal rights for African Americans. After the Civil War Logan returned to Congress as a Republican. He served three terms in the U.S. Senate and was a Republican Vice-Presidential candidate in 1884. Logan died in Washington, D.C. in 1886. His greatest legacy is the creation of Memorial Day as a national holiday.
  354. Company H 27th Illinois Infantry

    In July 1861, J.D. Wheatley of DuQuoin wrote Illinois Governor Richard Yates that a Confederate company was drilling in Murphysboro. A Union officer sent to investigate discovered a group of men in uniforms made of red and white bed ticking drilling on the court house square with broomstick muskets and an American flag. This company, raised by attorney McHenry Brooks, mustered into the Union army on August 28, 1861, at Camp Butler as Company H, 27th Illinois Volunteer Infantry. The 27th fought in the battles of Belmont, Island #10, Stones River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and the Atlanta Campaign.
  355. Springfield Home for the Friendless/Family Service Center

    Founded on February 12, 1863, the 54th birthday of President Abraham Lincoln, the Springfield Home for the Friendless was established as a temporary shelter for children, widows, and the destitute displaced by Civil War and economic hardship. The Home for the Friendless Movement started in New England and gradually moved west. Springfield co-founder and land developer Elijah Iles donated several acres for the Home at the corner of 8th and South Grand, and fund-raising for the building began soon after.

    Shortly after Christmas in 1864, several dozen refugees from war-torn Arkansas were sent by boat and rail from Fort Smith, a Union stronghold on the edge of Indian Territory, to Springfield. Reverend Francis Springer, U.S. Army Chaplain at Fort Smith and founder of the Lutheran Church in Springfield, arranged for passage of the refugees, who began arriving at the Home for the Friendless on January 19, 1865. Springer, a former neighbor and friend of Abraham Lincoln, continued to send refuges to the Home until well after the war.

    The Home for the Friendless was renamed the Children’s Service Bureau in the 1920s. It has been in continuous operation at this location for 150 years, offering foster care, adoption, and family support services, while tending to the needs of thousands of underprivileged children and their families.
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